web analytics

Adam Stephen

Lt Colonel Adam Stephen

Compiled, written by Jim Moyer February 2017, updated 4/27/2017, 4/29/2017, 5/9/2017, 5/10/2017, 5/14/2017

.

We have the uniform of Adam Stephen. Scroll way down below to find more on that. We have his buildings and his story, even a portraits of his grandson, but no image have we of Adam Stephen yet.

.

“…where Stephen was, trouble was,”

wrote Douglas Southall Freeman

author of an extensive multi volume bio on Young George Washington, page 256, Volume II, Chapter on Rebuilding the Regiment (Summer of 1757), published 1948.

.

This is by no means comprehensive, as there is so much on Adam Stephen to be added here in the near future.

.

But there is a lot here.  So read in bits and pieces.

.

Each piece is a story unto itself.

.

Why Wikipedia links?

Despite its tendency to be an echo chamber of wrong information, eventually correct info gets entered.  But these links don’t disappear as often as other web sites. Even the Mt Vernon website unfortunately provides broken links as they update and move around their information.

.

But !  Wikipedia is mainly for the thumbnail sketch of a biography or event. It is only to be looked at as a starting point, certainly not the final word.

.

We rely heavily on Founders Online or other similar primary contemporary sources where we can

.

COLOR CODE

Note, all text in orange italics is Douglas Southall Freeman.

.

All text in purple italics are letters between Lt Col Adam Stephen and  Col George Washington.

.

All links in brown will highlight as yellow when you hover the cursor over them.

.

Red is mostly used for dates, black text written by Jim Moyer, compiler and author of this piece.

.

.

.

.


Douglas Southall Freeman writes :


.

Frontier garrison duty had not carried Stephen, as it had Peter Hog, in a gradual descent to incompetence; but where Stephen was, trouble was.

.

His acceptance of Dagworthy’s seniority [did he have a choice without GW around?] never had been explained, though Stephen’s letters often contained sharp criticisms of the Marylander.

.

It was against Stephen, however unjustly, that some of the charges of drunkenness and immorality at Fort Cumberland had been directed.  [Virginia Gazette posted these charges]

.

.


GW NOT HAPPY


.

Even as early as Jan-Feb 1755, Adam Stephen, himself, acknowledges GW is not happy with him:

.

“and for my own part it gives me the Greatest uneasiness to have Reason to believe that I do not Enjoy the same Share of your Confidence and friendship that I once was happy in: Depend on it, Sir, my Constant Endeavours Shall be to deserve it.”

.

.


ADAM STEPHEN STILL EXPRESSES LOYALTY


.

Douglas Southall Freeman continues:

He had been loyal to Washington . . .

.

Even some 2 decades later in the midst of a new “fire” …

George Washington appreciates

Adam Stephen’s letter of July 4, 1776.

.

GW writes back to Adam Stephen on July 20, 1776:

.

I did not let the Anniversary of the 3d or 9th of this Instt

pass of without a grateful remembrance of the escape

we had at the  Meadows

and on the Banks of Monongahela.2

the same Provedence that protected us

upon those occasions will, I hope, continue his Mercies,

and make us happy Instruments

in restoring Peace & liberty to this once favour’d,

but now distressed Country.

Give my Complimts to the Sev⟨eral⟩ of yr Corps

of my acquaintan⟨ces and⟩

believe me to be

Dr Sir

Yr Most Obedt ⟨Sert,⟩

.

.

.


LIST OF COMPLAINTS AGAINST ADAM STEPHEN


.

Summer of 1757

FOLLOWING ORDERS

Douglas Southall Freeman continues:

…but he had been too prone to repeat gossip and share in factional quarrels.

.

Besides Washington was compelled to report to Dinwiddie that Stephen had failed to take with him to South Carolina certain officers whom the Governor had designatied for that service “…This,” Washington added, “is not the only instance in which has used such liberties [in dispensing orders;.”  [ letter from 24 May 1757 see below]

.

Later Dinwiddie was disposed to think Stephen’s negligence had been responsible for the loss of twelve deserters en route to Williamsburg. [ Dinwiddie 635-636]

The Governor suspected, further, that Stephen had placed on the transports more women than the 6 per 100 men allowed in the regular army.

.

Horror of horrors. Stephen Adam was a little lax on THAT ratio.

GW put that “6 per 100” note in letter to the Captains of  29 July 1757.

.

See all correspondence on that same day 29 July 1757

https://founders.archives.gov/search/Date%3A1757-07-29

.

March 9, 1759

BEHAVIOR IN THE VA REGIMENT

Lt. Edward Hubbard of the Virginia Regiment wrote Bouquet on 9 March 1759 from Winchester:

.

“The Virga Assembly have Voted the Recruiting this Regt to a Thousand. And I hear offer’d the Command to Col. Wm Byrd. Col Washington has Recievd the thanks of the House for his Servicesand is Resolv’d to have the Conduct of Lt Col Stephens examin’d, by the assembly intending to lay before them the many Crimes of which he is Accus’d—which will (perhaps) Require all his Dexterity to Elude . . .” (Stevens, Bouquet Papers description begins Donald H. Kent et al., eds. The Papers of Henry Bouquet. 6 vols. Harrisburg, Pa., 1951-94. description ends , 3:182–83).   See founders online source.

.

February 1760

LAND DEALS

To George Washington from George Mercer, 17 February 1760 letter

.

“…Stephen is to be down at the Assembly too, not only to direct Them, but also to back Bullitthe rubs his Hands, shrugs his Shoulders, and says he knows if Tom gets the Place he will serve a Friend—Tho. I was once very easy about this Affair, I cant say now but it woud give Me the greatest Joy imaginable to disappoint these mighty Schemers—they are to have all the best Land on the Ohio &c. in Partnership—The Plan has been long concerted, and they already think Themselves absolute Proprietors—tho. Ill be crucified if they’ll leave the two Men to themselves, if ever they describe its Bounds and Situation by Chain & Compass.

.

I have wrote Bullitt that he may depend I’ll do all I can, to have at least a Refusal of a Place, as well as himself, & that I shoud beg the Favor of my Friend Washington’s Assistance—It woud vex Me much to be disappointed in any Thing I attempted by him & his Friend Stephens. I shall also write the Commissary on this Occasion.”

.

To George Washington from Robert Stewart, 14 April 1760 letter

.

” I’m extremely sorry to find the Regiment in so bad a situation—Step[hen]s (whose gone to Pennsylvania to Buy Land) employ’d several of the Soldiers on his own Plantation, in driving Cattle &Ca and many have had Furlough’s of whose return there’s little probability;…”

.

.

May 1761

ELECTION

Adam Stephen entered the election competing against George Washington and his aid de camp, George Mercer.

.

To George Washington from Robert Stewart, 12 March 1761 letter

.

“S[tephen]s continues indefaticable and I’m informd intends to make use of every method to arrive at his point de vue but nothing can raise the most remote suspicion of your Interest’s being immutably Establish’d4

.

The letter Washington writes to Sheriff Van Swearingen, 15 May 1761, three days before the election:

.

“…Col. Stephens proceedings is a matter of the greatest amazement to me. I have come across sundry of his Letters directed to the Freeholders wherein he informs them that he acquitted himself of what was charged to him on the Streets of Winchester while you were present . . .”

.

1775

ANOTHER ELECTION TROUBLE

Adam Stephen is accused of another fraudulent election in 1775.  See Page 511, Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and Their Descendants: A History of Frederick County, Virginia …

.

Delegates to the Colonial Convention

Held in Richmond, Virginia,

Monday, July 17, 1775

.

Isaac Zane and Chas. Mynn Thruston,
Frederick Co.

.

Robert Rutherford and Adam Stephen,
Berkeley Co.
.

James Mercer, Hampshire Co.

No delegate present, Shenandoah Co.
.

When the name of Adam Stephen was called,

a protest from many citizens of Berkeley County

was presented and considered by the Convention :

the complaint being that a fraudulent election

had been held in Berkeley County.

Col. Stephen was charged with

using his office of Commander- in-Chief

of the Militia of that County, to secure his election;

and that it was accomplished in this wise.

The Colonel ordered the several companies

to appear on election day for muster,

and were then marched to the polls

and requested to vote for their Colonel.

The charge was vigorously supported

by the contestants.

The Convention refused him a seat;

and a new election was ordered.

Stephen quietly submitted;

and from some cause the election was not held.

Stephen loitered in Richmond

for several months, and mingled with the delegates;

and from this, he has been accredited

by some writers as a member of the first Convention.

.

.

.


GERMANTOWN


.

The previous history of Adam Stephen’s conduct foreshadows years later

a court martial

after the Battle of Germantown October 1777 in the War for Independence.

.

In that battle of Germantown, One of Greene’s brigades, under the command of Brigadier General Adam Stephen, veered off course and began following Meetinghouse Road instead of rendezvousing at Market Square with the rest of Greene’s forces. The wayward brigade collided with Wayne’s brigade and mistook them for the redcoats. The two American brigades opened heavy fire on each other, became badly disorganized, and both fled.”

.

BUT !  This Friendly Fire Disaster?

.

WERE BOTH FRIENDLY FIRE INCIDENTS THE SAME?

Washington should have had some mercy on this.

For George Washington and George Mercer

also had the

same horrific encounter during the Forbes Expedition in the French and Indian War in 1758,

nineteen years earlier.

.

Washington never wrote anything about it.

And remained friends with George Mercer,

even running for office in 1761

with George Mercer for House of Burgesses

to represent Frederick County

AND …

against…Adam Stephen for that office.

.

.

A review of the Court Martial charges:

.

The Court of enquiry, of which Genl Greene is president, is to sit to morrow morning at nine o’clock at the president’s quarters, to enquire into the conduct of Major General Stephen, on the march from the Clove to Schuylkill-falls—in the action of the 11th of September last on the Brandywine—and more especially in the action of the 4th instant at and about Germantown, on which occasions he is charged with “Acting unlike an officer”—Also into the charge against him, for “Drunkenness, or drinking so much, as to act frequently in a manner, unworthy the character of an officer.”5

.

Source:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/03-11-02-0619

.

A General Court Martial of which Major General Sullivan was president, was held on the 3rd instant, and on divers other days, to the 17th instant inclusively, for the trial of Major General Stephen, charged with—“1st Unofficerlike behaviour on the march from the Clove—2nd Unofficerlike behaviour in the actions at Brandywine and Germantown—3rd Drunkenness”—The Court declared their opinion and sentence as follows—“The Court having considered the charges against Major General Stephen, are of opinion, that he is guilty of unofficerlike behaviour, in the retreat from Germantown, owing to inattention, or want of judgement; and that he has been frequently intoxicated since in the service, to the prejudice of good order and military discipline; contrary to the 5th article of the 18th Section of the articles of war4—Therefore sentence him to be dismissed the service—The Court find him not guilty of any other crimes he was charged with, and therefore acquit him, as to all others, except the two before mentioned.” The Commander in Chief approves the sentence.

.

Source:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/03-12-02-0324

.

.

.

.


CONTRARY ORDERS


.

Douglas Southall Freeman continues:

Finally, Washington found after resuming command of all his troops, that Stephen so often had given orders contrary to those he had received that ….

.

See this letter Douglas Southall Freeman is referencing:

GW from Fort Loudoun writes letter below to Robert McKenzie 29 July 1757:

.

Colo. Stephen has given so many strange orders, orders, so inconsistent with my Instructions and incompatible with his own—that it will be with great difficulty, if it is even possible, to extricate the Officers and myself from the dilemma and trouble they have occasioned.

.

This is serious. The lack of oversight on funds allocated by Williamsburg?

.

What right Colo. Stephen had to order any repairs to your fort, without giving me previous notice of his design, I know not; and why you shou’d apply to him for those orders (when I was nearly as convenient, and alone had the right to direct) is matter of surprize to me.2

.

The fund established for building of forts, has long been expended; and how your demand will be answered, I am at a loss to determine. However, that you may not suffer by complying with Colo. S——n’s orders; draw out an exact accompt, and what assistance I can be towards procuring your money, shall be chearfully given.

.

.


SUMMARY OF OFFENSES


.

1757 is the year that increasingly soured the relationship between Washington and Stephen.  Never near as bad as Hamilton and Burr. They had other objectives to pursue.  But . . .

.

This is a foreshadowing of more to come.

.

Not just the issue of following orders or when discretion is allowable, or the excessive drinking, leading to all sorts of mistakes on a battlefield or mis-use of the budget supplied by Williamsburg- all attributes of our tough independent thinking pioneers – but also there is conflict between GW and Adam Stephen on the land grabs and conflict on electioneering practices encouraging the unqualified to vote – again all qualities of our fiercely independent, unruly and un-ruled pioneers.

.

You’ll see these issues pop up

in a 1761 election where Adam Stephen runs against George Washington.

.

You’ll see these issues again

when Adam Stephen makes some decisions in the Battle of Germantown.

.

You’ll see these issues

when GW and Adam Stephen compete for land.

.

And you’ll see it again

with the intoxication of this pioneer

extolling Independence but getting thrown out anyway –

thrown out from an independence convention,

thrown out from the continental army.

.

And none of this stopped this man.

He didn’t sit around.

He creates Martinsburg.

In 1778  right after the Germantown court martial.

He Made a life.

.

And so years later,

the tough Adam Stephen became

the venerable General Adam Stephen,

so referenced by Katherine Glass Greene

when mentioning a stone

from Adam Stephen’s grave

being used for the

Braddock Cannon monument

on Cork and Braddock in Winchester VA.

.

.

.


“I SAVeD MY BACON”


.

“I was attacked by the Indians on my way down, and lost a man. I Savd my Bacon by retreating to the Fort—The party who conveyd me yesterday discoverd fourteen and fird upon them, but it was to late to pursue them.”

.

Lt Col Adam Stephen writes from Winchester VA to Col George Washington 4 October 1755 :

.

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-02-02-0068

.

From this source:

http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/save-ones-bacon.html

,

By bacon, we now normally mean the cured and dried meat taken from the back or sides of a pig. To the medieval mind, ‘bacon’ was meat from anywhere on the body of the animal – more akin to what we now call pork. This was the origin of the slang term ‘bacon’ meaning the human body. ‘Saving your bacon’ was simply saving your body from harm. The expression was used that way as early as the 17th century as, for example, this extract from Ireland’s Momus Elenticus, 1654:

“Some fellowes there were… To save their bacon penn’d many a smooth song.”

.

http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/save-ones-bacon.html

.

.

.


CHRONOLOGY

Adam Stephen (c. 1718 – July 16, 1791)


.

1718?

Born in Scotland

.

1730

degree at King’s College in Aberdeen

studied medicine in Edinburgh

entered Royal Navy service on a hospital ship

 emigrating to the British province of Virginia in the late 1730s or early 1740s

.

1740s

With brother Alexander Stephen in Fredericksburg VA  establishing a medical practice

.

1754-1755

Adam Stephen was in each venture:

Battle of Jumonville Glen

Battle of Fort Necessity,

Braddock Expedition of 1755 and other expeditions

.

 

1755-1757

Lt Col Adam Stephen is mostly stationed at Fort Cumberland dealing with the Dagworthy Controversy.

.

1761

Adam Stephen ran against George Washington

See the election of 1761 for House of Burgesses

.

1778

October?

Later Adam Stephen is a General in the War for Independence

but the Friendly Fire debacle in the Battle of Germantown

is Adam Stephen’s exit from the war.

.

December 1778

Martinsburg was established by an act[6] of the Virginia General Assembly that was adopted in December 1778[7] during the American Revolutionary War. Founder Major General Adam Stephen named the gateway town to the Shenandoah Valley along Tuscarora Creek in honor of Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin, a nephew of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron.[8]

.

.

.

.

 


Why did Adam Stephen name the town Martinsburg?


.

Creator of Martinsburg WV

.

Not sure why. They knew each other.

Martin was cousin to Lord Fairfax

and helped on all the legal land deals.

And Adam Stephen was very much

involved like most of

Washington’s men on securing land.

.

.

NO NAME CHANGES

It is interesting to choose

Martin, a passive Loyalist to the Crown,

not under threat by any of the Patriots.

.

Many parts of Virginia were not going through a

civil war like New Jersey or South Carolina.

Ben Franklin’s son was a NJ British Governor and those

two had a lifetime separation.

.

George Washington didn’t change the name of

Mt Vernon, named after British Admiral Vernon.

.

Winchester VA didn’t change the names

of its streets named after British leaders.

.

.

.

1758 ELECTION OF MARTIN

VA Regiment Col George Washington  ran with

County Militia Colonel Thomas Bryan Martin

in the July 24, 1758 election.

.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Bryan_Martin

.

.

When did Adam Stephen create Martinsburg?

After he was “cashiered” out the Continental Army

for being drunk,

not following orders,

causing the friendly fire foul up

in Battle of Germantown.

.

.

.

.


STEPHEN ADAMS SITES IN MARTINSBURG WV


.

In 1770 General Adam Stephen acquired a 255 acre tract of land in Frederick County, VA. (now in Berkeley County, WV), he built upon it a sturdy limestone residence. Severely rectangular and unembellished, this home of Martinsburg’s founder to this day crowns its rocky hill.
When Adam Stephen built his house, he already had behind him a long and illustrious dual career as surgeon and soldier. Born in Scotland in 1718, he was a graduate of both the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh.
After serving the Crown with distinction as a ship’s surgeon in King George’s War with France, in 1746-1747, following the overthrow of the Pretender, Dr. Stephen came to America. Here, in Fredericksburg, VA, he successfully practiced surgery until 1754 when Col. William Fairfax “forced” Stephen to accept a first captaincy on the frontier. His distinguished years in the field as second-in-command to General Washington, had left him only on thought in mind: To live at peace with his neighbors and to find for them and for himself a town on the Tuscarora.
Stephen had served as the first High Sheriff of Berkeley County, as a member of the House of Burgess at Williamsburg, and later as a delegate to the Virginia General Assembly, at Richmond. In the Revolutionary War he drove Dunmore out of Norfolk, VA, and fought so well in the Battle of Trenton that he was promoted to the rank of general. Later he engaged in the Battles of Princeton, Chadd’s Ford, Brandywine and Germantown.

See Stephen Adam House in Martinsburg.

Longitude Latitude of house

39.45498, -77.96025

.

Navigate Google Car

.

This is the closest

the Google Car

gets to the

Stephen Adam House.

,

You can see the 2 chimneys

identifying the house :

.

Map of location.

.

More on Adam Stephen House

.

Source of photo and caption

.

Adam Stephen Burial Monument in Martinsburg

.

Navigate Google Car to see Monument

.

.

More on Caves underneath the Adam Stephen house.  Look for this soon.

.

.

More on the Tuscarora Creek name.   Look for this soon.

.

.

.

.


Braddock Cannon Memorial has a piece of Adam Stephen


.

Source of the text in orange below:

Katherine Glass Greene  who was known as Katherine R Glass at the time,  wrote some of the articles for the Winchester Evening Star.  Most of the Evening Star articles before and after this Braddock Memorial commemoration  are reproduced in her book,  “Winchester Virginia And Its Beginnings 1743-1814”, first published in 1926.

.

The 8th of 10 stones

in the Braddock Cannon Memorial

sitting at the Washington Office Museum

on corner of Cork and Braddock

in Winchester VA

was taken from

The grave of General Adam Stephen at Martinsburg.

.

When Major-General Adam Stephen

[Ed note: Adam Stephen was a Lt Colonel under Colonel Washington during the French and Indian War]

came to meet General Braddock at Winchester

on his way to Fort Duquesne,

his daughter, Susan Stephen,

accompanied him on horseback.

.

Colonel William Dandridge fell in love

with the charming girl in the red riding habit

and they were married.

.

Their home, “The Bower.”

on the banks of the Opequon

in Jefferson county, West Virginia,

became a renowned center of hospitality.

.

Their son, Adam Stephen Dandridge, married Miss Sarah Pendleton.

.

They were the grandparents

of Miss Mary Spottiswoode Buchanan

[Ed note: Mary Spottiswoode Buchanan

lived on 116 N Braddock St

with Bettie Taylor Bliss Dandridge

who was President Zachary Taylor’s daughter

and who took the place of her mother

as mistress of all public White House functions],

who contributed so much to the success of the celebration

[ Ed note: of this Braddock Cannon Memorial parade]

in Winchester,

and to whose generosity and patriotism

was due the distinctive honor

of having at the unveiling the

famous sash to which General Braddock

was borne from the field of battle.

.

Speaking of that Braddock’s Sash,

Adam Stephen was a Captain

in the VA Regiment at that battle.

Captain Robert Stewart and

George Washington were credited

with helping Braddock after he got shot.

George Washington allegedly kept Braddock’s Sash.

.

Source of the orange text above:

Katherine Glass Greene  who was known as Katherine R Glass at the time,  wrote some of the articles for the Winchester Evening Star.  Most of the Evening Star articles before and after this Braddock Memorial commemoration  are reproduced in her book,  “Winchester Virginia And Its Beginnings 1743-1814”, first published in 1926.

.

.

.


Founders Online Letters


.

All correspondence between

Adam Stephen and George Washington

from the French and Indian War

thru the War for Independence:

.

https://founders.archives.gov/search/Correspondent%3A%22Stephen%2C%20Adam%22%20Correspondent%3A%22Washington%2C%20George%22

.

.

.


Adam Stephen Uniform


.

Adam Stephen’s Waistcoat and Gorget Date: ca. 1754 Catalog #: 12197; 12199 gorget Accession #: 52984 Credit: Division of Military History and Diplomacy, National Museum of American History

See discussion of the Virginia Regiment uniform

in the French and Indian War

on this link about

Charles Willson Peale’s

1772 portrait of George Washington.

.

.

Washington’s description of Uniform

.

“Colonel Washington expressly orders, that no Officer do provide himself with any other kind of Clothes than those ordered the 17th of September last as they will not be allowed to appear in them. Every Officer who has not complied with that order, to do it immediately—and they are all to procure Sashes, if to be had—They may be supplied with Hats, and waistcoat-lace, at Mr Peters’s, Rock-Creek—and sword-knots—  . . .”

.

peale - 1772 washington portrait 2 editAnd the order on September 17, 1755?   GW’s order,a Suit of Regimentals of good blue Cloath, the Coat to be faced and cuffed with Scarlet, and trimmed with Silver: a Scarlet waistcoat, with silver Lace, blue Breeches, and a silver-laced Hat.”

.

Notice GW mentions “blue Breeches” in quote above?

.

Notice in portrait  the “Breeches” are red.

.

Breeches are the pants.

.

 http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-03-02-0232#GEWN-02-03-02-0232-fn-0003

.

————————————————————————————

More on the UNIFORM

George Mercer’s description of uniform

.

MERCER’S DESCRIPTION OF THE UNIFORM

to see a Sash & Gorget with a genteel Uniform, a Sword properly hung, a Hat cocked, peale - 1772 washington portrait 2 editPersons capable of holding Conversation where only common Sense was requisite to continue the Discourse,

.

and a White Shirt, with any other than a black Leather Stock, were Matters of great Surprize and Admiration

.

& which engaged Them all to give Us a polite Invitation to spend the Evening,

.

& after to agree to keep Us Company which they had determined before not to do—agreeable to what they had practised with the other Provincial Troops.

.

We have lost that common Appellation of Provincials, & are known here by the Style & Title of the Detachment of the Virga Regiment.”

.

From 17 August 1757 letter Mercer wrote to GW while in South Caroline: http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-04-02-0242

.

.

—————————————————————————

Final Thoughts on the UNIFORM

.

See Lt Col Adam Stephen’s actual uniform – http://amhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/collection/object.asp?ID=808

.

Following is from this link:

http://www.kronoskaf.com/syw/index.php?title=Virginia_Provincials

.

1754 Uniform, all red . . . and 1755 Uniform with Blue

.

Virginia_Provincials_1754_Uniform_PlateVirginia_Provincials_1755_Uniform_Plate

.

.

.

And more about the British Army and Colonial Uniforms:

http://www.kronoskaf.com/syw/index.php?title=British_Army

.

Virginia Regiment

Supplies and uniform

http://web.hardynet.com/~gruber/varegt.htm

.

.

.

.

.

.

 


Links

.

Wikipedia entry

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Stephen

.

Excellent chronology and detail in this link

http://fiwar.wikidot.com/adam-stephen

.

See Adam Stephen videos on Youtube

.

.

.

Philly area. Adam Stephen was here among all the other leaders of the time.

The House

.

.

.

.

.

.

.


TIMELINE

under construction

.

July 12, 1756 

From Founders Online Footnote:

Orders creating

The 2nd company to be headed by Lt Col Adam Stephen:

with his 2 officers Lt John Blagg and Ensign James Roy

Thomas Carter, no information given, but he had served as sergeant in Charles Lewis’s company according to the 16 Jan. 1756 payroll; John Graham, enlisted January 1755, 5′5½″; William Grant, not listed on roll; Philemon Waters, enl. 12 Mar. 1754 in Isle of Wight County, 22, 5′7½″, carpenter, from Virginia; Isaac Barringer, enl. January 1755, at Belhaven (Alexandria), 31, 5′5½″, carver, from England, “Bushy Hair . . . Roman Nose”; William Coffland (not listed as corporal), enl. November 1755 in Stafford County, 35, 5′11½″, gardener, from Ireland (13 July 1756, DLC:GW).  This Order of July 12, 1756 also makes sure that no Sergeant or Corporal rank can be taken away unless by order of the Colonel or by Court Martial:  “Sergeants and Corporals;8 who are not to be broke or changed, but by the Sentence of a Court Martial—or particular orders from the Colonel: as such practices have made great confusion in the Regiments…”

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.


Links for Follow-up

.

Sept 3 1755

GW in Williamsburgh, ordering movement of companies and recruiting

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-02-02-0006

.

11 September 1755

GW in Alexandria to Adam Stephen

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-02-02-0021

.

.

Quite a source on many topics

http://lib.jrshelby.com/

.

Christmas and New Years at Adam Stephen House

“In Scotland, Christmas was not celebrated as festively as it was in the American colonies, especially in Virginia, which observed mainly the English customs,” Hammersla said. “Scotland had some different customs altogether.”

Hammersla said this year’s tours will focus on New Year’s Eve customs.

“There weren’t a whole lot of things they did to celebrate Christmas,” Hammersla said. “Mainly, because Christmas was outlawed in Scotland for hundreds of years.”

http://www.journal-news.net/weekender/2016/11/adam-stephen-house-offers-up-scottish-christmas/

.

.

.

.

.

Review of a Biography on Adam Stephen

Follow up on common law wife, Phoebe Seaman, presumably the mother of his daughter.

Follow up on his 1761 campaign on the Overhill Cherokee.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/2938107?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

.

.

.

http://edu.lva.virginia.gov/online_classroom/shaping_the_constitution/people/adam_stephen

.

.

.

https://www.historicstjohnschurch.org/convention/

.

.

From Adam Stephen, 29 July 1776

.

From Adam Stephen, 29 July 1776

.

.

http://rotunda.upress.virginia.edu/founders/default.xqy?keys=TSJN-print-01-01-02&mode=TOC

.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/4243195?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

.

.

http://www20.us.archive.org/stream/pennsylvaniamag67penngoog/pennsylvaniamag67penngoog_djvu.txt

.

.

Resolutions of the Provincial Congress of Virginia; March 23, 1775

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/res_cong_va_1775.asp

.

.

http://www.mountvernon.org/digital-encyclopedia/article/adam-stephen/

.

.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Conventions#First_through_fourth_Revolutionary_conventions

.

.

Adam Stephen’s  SPEECH at the convention

https://books.google.com/books?id=3T8SAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA336&lpg=PA336&dq=ADAM+STEPHEN+KICKED+OUT+OF+VIRGINIA+CONVENTION&source=bl&ots=JfdnWOn3Nz&sig=qOfQYXc1MgBC8Vu-U7CJYKqV-HM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjbsOmuzfrTAhVOwGMKHbo4CQMQ6AEIRzAH#v=onepage&q=ADAM%20STEPHEN%20KICKED%20OUT%20OF%20VIRGINIA%20CONVENTION&f=false

.

.

.

He selected three recently

emigrated Scotsmen, Peter Hog(10),

Adam Stephen11 and Robert Stobo(12) to

be company commanders. In addition

there was the Irish born Andrew

Lewis(13 )and Dutch born Jacob Van

Braam(14). He probably intended that

William Trent command one of the

companies. He had sent Captain Trent

ahead with a body of men to build a fort

at the forks of the Ohio, but these men

had been discovered and evicted by the

French before they could complete the

task. Trent’s failure may have displeased

Dinwiddie as he was not further utilized

by him. Van Braam had experience as a

lieutenant in he Dutch Army and, being a

linguist, had accompanied Major

Washington to Fort Le Boeuf as an

interpreter. The other company

commander was twenty-one year old

George Mercer(15), the eldest son of John

Mercer.

Grown impatient with Colonel

Fry’s lengthy preparations Dinwiddie

directed Washington to advance from

Alexandria with two companies on April

7, 1754. The officers in the party included

Captain Hog, the then Lieutenant Van

Braam and Doctor James

Craik(16)another recent Scottish  . . .

http://www.wvculture.org/history/wvhs/wvhs2401.pdf

.

.

.

.

.

.

.


.

https://www.journal-news.net/life/in-our-neighborhood/2017/06/ceremony-pays-homage-to-martinsburg-founder/

.

.

.

 

 

 

About Us History Explore & Learn Join & Support News & Events
Our Story War Timeline Visit Join Us! Calendar
Board of Directors Fort Loudoun Tour Donate Press
Contact Us Additional Forts Resources Volunteer Newsletters
  Baker-Hardy House Essay Contest Shop Archive