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Andrew Lewis

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Compiled and written by Jim Moyer 1/2/2017

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Major Andrew Lewis

Andrew Lewis was a Major under Colonel George Washington in the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, 1754 – 1763.

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Early Life

This means this Scot wasn’t at the Battle of Culloden in 1746:

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From Wikipedia link:

In 1732 John Lewis [his father], having killed his landlord in an altercation, fled to Virginia with his sons Andrew and Thomas. They became among the first settlers in western Augusta County.

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Lewis Spring

1751, 1763, 1770, 1774

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Andrew Lewis repeatedly returns to this spot.

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Lewisburg WV named after  Andrew Lewis .

In 1751 Lewis, as a young surveyor, established a camp near the spring behind the present courthouse. This spring has been known as the Lewis Spring since that time.

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During Pontiac’s Rebellion in 1763, Native Americans completely destroyed two of the early European settlements in Greenbrier County, killing the men and carrying off the women and children. This raid virtually eliminated all of the earliest settlers in the county. The Native Americans were primarily Shawnees, and (according to undocumented tradition) were led by the famous leader Hokoleskwa, or Cornstalk.

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By 1770 a fortified encampment called Fort Savannah was established at the Lewis Spring. In 1774, Lt Governor Dunmore of Virginia instructed then-Colonel Andrew Lewis to gather “willing and able men” to go to the great Kanawha River and stand against the Native American forces that were attacking the Greenbrier Valley. In what became known as Lord Dunmore’s War, over 1,490 men were assembled, some at Fort Pitt at present-day Pittsburgh, and others at Fort Union, on the site of present-day Lewisburg. These recruits included Lewis’s brother Charles, and others which history books refer to as one of the most remarkable assemblages of frontier leaders in American history. Thirteen were men of political and military distinction. Lewis’s army marched down the New and Kanawha Rivers to the Ohio River, where they intended to cross over and invade the Ohio Country, which was the home of the Shawnees. The Native Americans, led by Cornstalk, attempted to cut them off at the mouth of the Kanawha, where they fought an inconclusive battle that came to be known as the Battle of Point Pleasant

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Promoted Major

A Captain Andrew Lewis is promoted to Major

in the VA Regiment of the French and Indian War

on 17 September 1755:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-02-02-0034

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Sandy Creek Expedition


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February 1756

Major Andrew Lewis leads the Sandy Creek Expedition.

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Click on this Map Link.

Press – Minus sign to zoom away.

Follow and click on all the lavender stars and lavender lines

showing the path of this ill-fated Sandy Creek Expedition.

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ORDERS GIVEN

To Major Andrew Lewis, of the Virginia Regiment.

[Winchester, 27 December 1755]

In pursuance of Commands from the Governor to me,

you are hereby ordered to proceed to Augusta,

and there to take upon you

the command of Captain Hogg’s Company;

three Companies of Rangers,

and such Cherokee Indians as you shall find there;

and march them to such place or places,

and obey such order or orders,

as the Governor shall direct.1

Given under my Hand &c.

at Winchester, December 27th 1755.

G:W.

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Founders Online Footnote:

1Andrew Lewis arrived at Fort Frederick on the New River in February to take command of the Sandy Creek expedition. See Dinwiddie to GW, 14 Dec. 1755, n.8, for a description of the expedition.

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Source:

http://founders.archives.gov/?q=Date%3A1755-12-27&s=1111311111&r=3

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Dinwiddie’s Assessment:

April 8, 1756

Lt Gov Dinwiddie writes on April 8, 1756 to Colonel George Washington:

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Majr Lewis & his Men are return’d having done nothing essential.

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I believe they did not know the Way to the Shawnesse Towns;

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I expect him in Town to give a proper Acct of his March &ca.

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FAILURE BLAMED ON OTHERS

April 15, 1756

Resolved,

That Major Andrew Lewis, who commanded the Expedition, hath dis-
charged his Duty with Integrity and Resolution, and that the ill Success thereof was
entirely owing to the refractory and mutinous Behaviour of Captain Obediah Woods on,
John Smith, and John Montgomery, who commanded the Volunteers, and of the said
Volunteers. 

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Ordered,

That an Address be made to the Governor, to desire that his Honor would
be pleased to stop the Pay of the said Woodscm, Smith, and Montgomery, and that the
Officers may never more be employed as Officers in His Majesty’s Service.

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Page 369 and 370

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its session starting March 25, 1756

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COMPENSATION REQUESTED

April 20, 1756

A Petition of Samuel Overton and James Gun, setting forth, That they were sent
out upon the late intended Expedition against the Shawanesse, and that before their
Return they each of them lost their Guns and several other Things of considerable Value,
and praying the Consideration of this House, was presented to the House and read.

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Page 372,

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its session starting March 25, 1756

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PENALTY ON THE REBELLING OFFICERS

April 21, 1756

Ordered, That the said Bill be ingrossed, and read a third Time.
Mr Randolph reported, That he had according to Order waited on his Honor the
Governor, with the Resolution of the House of the 15th Instant, in Relation to the Officers
and Men concerned in the Expedition against the Shawnese; and that the Governor was
pleased to say, he would stop the Pay of the Officers and Men mentioned in the said Reso-
lution according to the Address of this House.

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Page 374 

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its session starting March 25, 1756

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PETITION BY RICHARD PEARIS

April 21, 1756

A Petition of Richard Paris, setting forth,

That he was ordered by the Governor,
last September, to go to the Cherokee Nation, in Order to bring a Number of them to the
Assistance of this Colony:

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That he was there much impeded in his Solicitations by the
North Carolina Traders, who endeavoured to persuade the Indians, that he only wanted
them to hunt, ’til they got Deer-Skins enough to pay him a Debt they owed him of 2586
lbs. Deer-Leather;

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upon which, to remove all Doubt, the Petitioner told them, he would
forgive them the Debt, and burn his Books, which he accordingly did;

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and thereupon 82 of their Warriors marched with him, and joined Major Lewis in the Expedition
against the Shawnese, and praying the Consideration of this House, was presented to the
House, and read.

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Page 379

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its session starting March 25, 1756

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COMPENSATION FOR LOSSES

It appears to us,

from the Information of Major Lewis, that there were not Arms
enough provided by the Public for the People that went on the Expedition; That
Mr Overton carried two Guns, that he borrowed, one of which, of the Value of five
Pistoles, was lost by a Canoe’s oversetting in crossing a River, and the other, of the
Value of two Pistoles and an Half, was, by the Direction of Major Lewis, given to an
Indian Warrior. And it further appeared to us, that Mr Overton left his Horse, Saddle
and Bridle, with a sick Man, who hath not been heard of since, and the Horse was then
tired.

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It also appeared to us,

from the same Information, that Mr Gunn carried with him
a valuable Gun, which was loft in the same Manner, and that his Horse tired, and was left
behind.

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Resolved,

That the said Samuel Overton ought to be allowed the Sum of S£. is. 3d. for
his two Guns, and the Sum of £.13 for his Horse, Saddle and Bridle.
Resolved, That the said James Gunn ought to be allowed the Sum of $£. is. 6d. for his
Gun, and the Sum of £.8 for his Horse.

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It appears to us,

that the said John Allen, by the Governor’s Direction, accompanied
Capt. Paris to the Cherokee Nation;

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That he bought a Horse here, and brought him to
Fort Frederick, where he left him, when he went on the Expedition against the Shawnese,
and could not find him on his Return;

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That at the Time the Canoe overset, in which he
was with Capt. Overton, be left a Pair of Pistols.

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Resolved,

That the said John Allen ought not to be paid for the said Horse.
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Resolved,

That he ought to be paid forty Shillings for the said Pistols.

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Ordered,

That it be an Instruction to the Committee appointed by the Act of Assem-
bly for raising £.40,000, to make an Allowance to the said Samuel Overton, James Gunn
and John Allen pursuant to the first, second and fourth Resolutions.

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page 380

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its session starting March 25, 1756

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100 LBS FOR RICHARD PEARIS

Friday April 23, 1756

Mr Cary reported, that the Persons to whom the Petition of Richard Paris was
referred, had examined into the same, and agreed upon a Report, and come to a Resolution
thereupon, which he read in his Place, and then delivered in at the Table, where it was
again twice read, and agreed to by the House, as follows:

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It appears to us,

that the said Paris was sent by the Governor to the Cherokee Nation,
to endeavour to bring some of their Warriors to our Assistance; that he had been a Trader
there four or five Years, and had due to him, from the Indians, a large quantity of
Deer-Leather; that the Carolina Traders spirited up the Indians against him, and pur-
suaded them to kill him; suggesting he only wanted to secure his own Debts, andu pon
this he freely forgave them all they owed, to convince them that he was sent by this
Government; and in Consequence thereof, eighty odd of them immediately came with
him to Fort Frederick, and joined in the Expedition intended against the Shawnese.
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Resolved,

That the said Richard Paris be allowed the Sum of £.100 towards reim-
bursing his Loss.
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Ordered,

That it be an Instruction to the Committee, appointed by Act of Assembly
for raising £.40,000, that they make an Allowance to the said Richard Paris, pursuant to
the said Resolution.

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Page 381  . . .

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its session starting March 25, 1756

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DESERTERS

A Petition of Obediah Woods on, setting forth,

That he hath been inform’d, that at a
Council of War, held by Major Andrew Lewis, and Part of the Officers under his Com-
mand, he with some other Officers were declared Deserters; and that the ill Success of
the Expedition intended against the Shawnese was entirely owing to the refractory and
mutinous Behaviour of the Petitioner:

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That the said Charge against the Petitioner is
highly unjust, as he is able to prove by many creditable Witnesses, and praying that
his Conduct and Behaviour may be enquired into, and that he may have it in his Power
to manifest his Innocence, was presented to the House and read, and the Question being
put, that the said Petition be committed,

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It passed in the Negative.

Resolved,

That the said Petition be rejected.

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Page 385

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its 1st session starting March 25, 1756

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COMPENSATION OF LOSSES

April 27, 1756

A Petition of Alexander Mackie, setting forth,

That he furnished Captain Woodson,
by order of the Governor, with sundry Necessaries on the late Expedition, amounting
to £>• 52 As. Jl f°r tne Use of the Service, and to Captain Smith and Paris, Sundries to
the Amount of £.37 os. 3d. for the same Service. That one John , assigned
to the Petitioner his Account of Cartage of the said Goods, to Fort Frederick, amounting
to £.14 igs. 2^ and praying the Consideration of this House, was presented to the House
and read.

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Ordered,

That the said Petition be referred to Mr Randolph, Mr Bland, and Mr
Cary, that they do examine into the Allegations thereof, and report the same, with
their Opinion thereupon, to the House.

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A Petition of Thomas Moreton, setting forth,

That in the late intended Expedition
against the Shawnese, he lost a valuable Horse, Saddle and Bridle, and praying the
Consideration of this House, was presented to the House and read, and the the Question
being put, that the said Petition be referred,

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It passed in the Negative.

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Besolved,

That the said Petition be rejected.

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AGENT TO REPRESENT VA TO GREAT BRITAIN

Side note there is a petition to hire an agent to represent Virginia in Great Britain

Ordered, That Leave be given to bring in a Bill, For appointing an Agent to solicit the
Affairs of this Colony in Great-Britain, and it is referred to Mr Charles Carter, Mr Bland,
and Mr Landon Carter to prepare and bring in the same.

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Page 386

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its 1st session starting March 25, 1756

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COMPENSATION TO BE PAID

April 28, 1756

Mr Randolph reported, That the Committee, to whom the Petition of Alexander
Mackie was referred, had had the same under their Consideration, and had come to a
69 Resolution thereupon, which he read in his Place, and then delivered in at the Table,
where it was again twice read, and agreed to by the House, as follows.

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Resolved,

That the said Alexander Mackie ought to be paid by the Public the Sum
of £.io3 14/”. 2d. the Ballance due to him for Goods furnished on Account of the Expe-
dition against the Shawnese, and for the Hire of two Waggons from John Thompson for
the Use of the said Expedition.
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Ordered,

That it be an Instruction to the Committee, appointed by Act of Assembly
for raising £.40,000, that they make an Allowance to the said Alexander Mackie, pursuant
to the said Resolution.

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Page 387

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its 1st session starting March 25, 1756

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PETITIONS FOR COMPENSATION

May 1, 1756

A Petition of Robert Donald, praying to be allowed for Goods by him found for the
Use of the late Shawnese Expedition.

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Also a Petition of Thomas Donald to the same Purpose.

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Also a Petition of Robert Hastie, to the same Purpose, were severally presented to
the House and read.

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Page 391

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its 1st session starting March 25, 1756

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COMPENSATION TO BE PAID

May 4, 1756

Resolved,

That it appears to the Committee that the said Robert Donald, by Order
of his Honor the Governor, did supply Capt. John Smith with sundry Goods, to the Value
of £.80 2/”. 6d. for the Use of the Men who marched under the said Capt. Smith’s
Command, on the Expedition against the Shawnese, and that the said Robert Donald
did pay to John Pearce, the Sum of £.g 7 s. 6d. for fifteen Days Hire of his Cart and
Oxen, to transport the said Goods towards Fort Frederick.
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Resolved,

That the said Robert Donald ought to be paid for the same by the public,
the Sum of £.89 10s.
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Ordered,

That it be an Instruction to the Committee, appointed by Act of Assembly
for raising £.40,000, to make an Allowance to the said Robert Donald, pursuant to the
last Resolution.

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Mr Fleming also reported, That the Committee, to whom the Petition of Robert
Hastie was referred, had had the same under their Consideration, and agreed upon a
Report, and come to two Resolutions thereupon, which he read in his Place, and then
delivered in at the Table, where they were again twice read, and agreed to by the House,
as follow.
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The said Robert Hastie produced to this Committee an Account against Major
Andrew Lewis for sundry dry Goods delivered him at Fort Frederick, amounting to £.4 gs.
1 id. with a Certificate signed Andrew Lewis, signifying that the said Goods were received
for the Use of the Chorokee Indians.
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The said Robert Hastie also produced to this Committee an Account against Capt.
John Smith for sundry Goods delivered him at Fort Frederick, amounting to £.7 13/”. gd.
which Account is signed John Smith, and directed to the Honorable Committee, but it
does not appear to this Committee for what Uses the said Goods were delivered, and
thereupon
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Resolved,

That the said Robert Hastie ought to be paid by the public the Sum of
£.4 gs. nd. for the Goods mentioned in the said Account against Major Lewis.
Resolved, That the said Petition, as to so much thereof as relates to the Goods men-
tioned in the Account against Capt. Smith, ought to be referred to the next Session of
Assembly, to be further enquired into.
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Ordered,

That it be an Instruction to the Committee, appointed by Act of Assembly
for raising £.40,000, to make an Allowance to the said Robert Hastie, pursuant to the first
Resolution.

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Page 395

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its 1st session starting March 25, 1756

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COMPENSATION

May 5, 1756

Mr Fleming reported, That the Committee to whom the Petition of Thomas Donald
was referred, had had the same under their Consideration, and agreed upon a Report, and
come to two Resolutions thereupon, which he read in his Place, and then delivered in at
the Table, where they were again twice read, and agreed to by the House, as follow.
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The said Thomas Donald produced to this Committee, an Account against Capt.
William Preston, for Goods delivered him at Fort Frederick, for the Use of his Company,
amounting to £.3 2 s. 6d. with a Certificate signed William Preston, signifying that the
said Goods were received for the Use of the said Company.
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The said Thomas Donald also produced to this Committee, an Account against
Capt. Richard Paris, for sundry Goods delivered to him at Fort Frederick, for the Use of
the white Men and Indians in his Company, amounting to £.59 igs. yd. with a Certificate
signed Richard Paris, signifying that the said Capt. Paris had received the said Goods
for the Uses aforesaid.
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The said Thomas Donald also produced to this Committee, an Account against Capt.
John Smith, for sundry Goods delivered him at Fort Frederick, amounting to £.ig 13 s.
id. which Account is signed John Smith, which Account is directed to the honorable
Committee, but it does not appear to this Committee for what Uses the said Goods were
delivered, and thereupon,
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Resolved,

That the said Thomas Donald ought to be paid by the Public, the Sum of
£.63 2 s. 1 d. for the Goods mentioned in the Accounts against Capt. Preston and Capt.
Paris.

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Resolved,

That the said Petition, for so much thereof as relates to the Goods contained
in the Account against Cap. Smith, ought to be referred to the next Session of Assembly,
to be further enquired into.

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Ordered,

That it be an Instruction to the Committee appointed by Act of Assembly,
for raising £.40,000, to make an Allowance to the said Thomas Donald, pursuant to the
first Resolution.

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Page 396

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its 1st session starting March 25, 1756

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LAST DAY OF 1ST SESSION

May 5, 1756

I think proper to prorogue you to the Second
Thursday in October, and you are accordingly prorogued to that Time.

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Page 397

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its 1st session starting March 25, 1756

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FIRST DAY OF 2ND SESSION

September 20, 1756

But the House of Burgesses met earlier on September 20, 1756, because of  a letter from Lord Loudoun, both Governor in abstentia of Virgina (while Lt Gov Dinwiddie ran its affairs) and also North American Commander of all forces.

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Page 401 

Journal of the House of Burgesses of its 2nd session starting September 20, 1756

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Presides at Court Martials

Andrew Lewis is President of a Court Martial trial on Deserters at Fort Loudoun Winchester VA.

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CHEROKEE FORT


 

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April 20, 1756

Resolved, That an humble Address be made to the Governor, to desire that his
Honor will be pleased to appoint Major Andrew Lewis, and Captain Samuel Overton, to
manage and overlook the Building a Fort in the Cherokee Country, and to assure his
Honor, that this House will make good any Deficiency that the Sum his Honor has been
pleased to say he would pay towards erecting the said Fort shall sall short, so as the same
do not exceed £.2000 in the whole.

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Page 372, Journal of the House of Burgesses of its session starting March 25, 1756

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15 August 1756

The fort Andrew Lewis was sent to built, got finished.

 

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To Colonel George Washington

From Lt Gov Robert Dinwiddie

Williamsburg Aug. 20th 1756

Sir

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Since writing You Yesterday The Express I sent to the Cherokees arrived & they have engag’d to send us 150 Warriors, who I expect with Major Lewis in about a Fortnight; I shall order the Majr to march them to Winchester to be under Your direction.1

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The Cherokees & Catawbas are at prest strongly attach’d to our Interest; the Catawba King2 is gone to Chas Town So. Carolina & on his return he promises to send fifty of his Warriors—I am greatly hurried & have only Time to write the above. I remain Sir Your humble Servant

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Robt Dinwiddie

P:S: Pray write to Mr Mason to know if he has any Guns fit for Inds. or any other Person of Yr acquaintce.3

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Founders Online Footnotes to letter above:

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1Andrew Lewis arrived on 28 June at the Cherokee town of Chota (Chottee) with his party of sixty men to build a wooden fort nearby on the Little Tennessee River (see Dinwiddie to GW, 23 April 1756, n.6).

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Lewis was initially hopeful about leading a large party of Cherokee warriors to join GW.

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On 23 Aug. Dinwiddie wrote Lewis: “Yr Letter of 23d of July from Chotee I recd a few Days since. . . . I observe the Cherokees intend one 100 men or more to our Assistance. . . . I am glad they want to see Colo. Washington, I therefore expect you’l conduct ’em to him & our Forces at Winchester” (ViHi: Dinwiddie Papers).

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But even before this, on 15 Aug., Lewis wrote at Chota to Capt. Raymond Demeré:

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“My Prospect is not so great since the Fort was finished, in getting a Number of Indians to march with me as was before” (Source: McDowell,S.C. Indian Affairs, 1754–1765, 2:166–67).

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When Lewis left for Virginia in mid-September, he had with him only seven Cherokee men and three women (see GW to Dinwiddie, 10 Oct. 1756).

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2The Catawba king was Hagler.

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Prisoner in Quebec for a Year

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From Wikipedia link:

During the Forbes Expedition, Lewis was captured during Major James Grant’s   attack on Fort Duquesne in September 1758. Taken to Quebec, Lewis remained a prisoner until late 1759.

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Click on map location

where Andrew Lewis was captured

with British Major General Grant.

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A year later in 1760, Robert Stewart refers to Andrew Lewis by his nickname, Paddy and relays Andrew Lewis report of recent hostilities:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-06-02-0223#GEWN-02-06-02-0223-fn-0001

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Lord Dunmore’s War

A General in Lord Dunmore’s War, where his men were attacked by Chief Cornstalk in the Battle of Point Pleasant in 1774.

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Passed over for Promotion

3 March 1777

Later in the War for Independence, Andrew Lewis is passed over for promotion.

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From Founders Online Letter

From George Washington

To Brigadier General Andrew Lewis

Head quarters. Morris Town. 3d March 1777.

Dear Sir,

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I was much disappointed at not perceiving your name in the list of Major Generals lately made by the Congress: And most sincerely wish that the neglect may not induce You to abandon the service. . . .

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UNLUCKY is right

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To George Washington from Robert Dinwiddie at Williamsburg 24 June 1757

Majr Lewis has been very unlucky in all his Expeditions,

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I don’t impute this last to Mismanagemt,

as the Indians cd not be prevail’d on to take Provisions suffict

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I wish we may have a good Accott of Capt. Spotswood—

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Colo. Stephen was highly blameable to take any of the regimental Suplies for the Indians more so as contrary to yr Orders, & his not bringing the Officers appointed for So. Carolina, if the King’s Ship & Transports had not been ready to sail I shd have order’d the Others down, if any of the Dutch Blankets rema[in] & not wanted for the Indians,

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Source:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-04-02-0163

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Andrew Lewis Statues, Historical Markers

Click on the icon on the map.

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Andrew Lewis with cannon Statue

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General Andrew Lewis Historical Sign

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Andrew Lewis Grave

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Andrew Lewis and Charles Lewis March

There’s more than one Charles Lewis – see disambiguation

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Andrew Lewis Home Richfield

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Andrew Lewis and Chief Cornstalk Statues at Point Pleasant

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LINKS

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Founders Online

Correspondence between Andrew Lewis and George Washington

https://founders.archives.gov/search/Correspondent%3A%22Washington%2C%20George%22%20Correspondent%3A%22Lewis%2C%20Andrew%22

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Wikipedia link

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Lewis_(soldier)

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