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Conotocaurious

NICKNAME?

Compiled by Jim Moyer 10/2/15, updated 10/18/15, 11/1/15

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Abe Lincoln is Honest Abe, right?  But he had another nickname, “Spotty Lincoln.”

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George Washington is Father of Our Country, right?

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But George Washington had another nickname, Conotocarious, meaning Town Destroyer.

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Maybe he inherited this name from the Indians who gave his great grandfather, John Washington the same name.

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We will prove George Washington was given this name of Conotocarious.

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But can we prove the allegation his Great Grandfather, John Washington, was also given this name by the Native Americans?

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Short summary:

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This great grandfather, John Washington, commissioned by Gov Berkeley to find redress from the Doeg Indians who were accused of a killing, knew he was heading into trouble so he made a Will before he went. What happened later across the Potomac from the future Mt Vernon is in dispute.  A killing of Susquehannock Indian Chiefs who came out in peace to parley occurred.  Then after that, the rest of the Susquehannock holed up in their fort under siege for 6 weeks. John Washington was rebuked for the killing of the Indian Chiefs by Gov Berkeley of VA, who famously said, “If they had killed by my father and my mother and all my friends, yet if they had come to treat of peace, they ought to have gone in peace.”

 

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So, is there somewhere in that story or in its aftermath where any of the Native Americans called John Washington, Conotocaurius or Town Destroyer or some equivalent?

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PURPOSE

1. We will prove and show all the appearances of this nickname bestowed on George Washington.

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2.  Show why  George Washington may have earned that name.

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3. Show why John Washington may have earned the nickname.

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4. Find any appearance in a contemporary document or later remembrance of that name being bestowed on John Washington.

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Table of Contents

1. Purpose

2. Spellings

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3. This Name’s Appearances

… Washington’s 2nd Journal of expedition to Ohio Country

… April 1754 Letter

… October 1755 Letter

… 1790 Cornplanter’s Speech

… Washington fulfills this name’s destiny

… Undated Memorandum

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4. So, what about John Washington?

  … GW from 1791 to 1799 tries to discover his family tree

  … And now the John Washington Story

  … A report by T.M. – its provenance

  … T.M.’S WILD STORY ITSELF

  … Fort Susquehannock – an Indian Fort

  … LINKS about John Washington

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Spellings:

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“Caunotaucarius”, “Conotocarious”, “Hanodaganears”, and “Hanadahguyus” —  all translate as “Town Taker”, “Burner of Towns”, “Devourer of Villages”, or “he destroys the town”.[1]  

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Conotocaurious  is the spelling used by Washington writing to Andrew Montour 10 October 1755

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Other spellings such as Conotocarious is used by the Mt Vernon website.

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THIS NAME’S APPEARANCES

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There is no mention of this name by Washington in his  October 31, 1753 to January 16, 1754 Journal  which is his first expedition to the Ohio Country.   Although Washington makes no mention at the time, years later Washington in notes to his biographer, Humphreys, states this is the journey where he first hears the name given him by Half King.  See  Undated Memorandum .

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Gist makes no mention of name in  14 Nov 1753  to 6 Jan 1754 journal of that same expedition.

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Washington mentions the name in his 2nd expedition journal (31 March 1754 to 27 June 1754) showing Washington signing this name as Conotocarious  in a speech to Half King.

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A speech from Half King addressing Lt Gov Dinwiddie does not mention Town Destroyer or any of its variant spellings.  See page 31 of book: MINUTES, PROVINCIAL COUNCIL PENNSYLVANIA and Founders Online link mentions same letter, from George Washington to James Hamilton, 24 April 1754 

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25 April 1754  Washington signs a speech he wrote to Chief Half King as  — Conotaucarious

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10 October 1755, Washington refers to himself as this name Conotocaurious    .

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1 December 1790 Chief Cornplanter addresses Washington as Town Destroyer

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Undated Memorandum to Washington’s biographer David Humphreys

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This name appears in orIginal documents of the time for George Washington. But so far, no such original documents show John Washington was given this name.

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Washington’s 2nd Journal of expedition to Ohio Country

31 March 1754 to 27 June 1754

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There is no mention of this name by Washington in his  October 31, 1753 to January 16, 1754 Journal  which is his first expedition to the Ohio Country.   Although Washington makes no mention at the time, years later Washington in notes to his biographer, Humphreys, states this is the journey where he first hears the name given him by Half King.  See  Undated Memorandum .

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Washington mentions the name in his 2nd expedition journal (31 March 1754 to 27 June 1754) showing Washington signing this name as Conotocarious  in a speech to Half King.

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This Founders Online footnote does not give source for this claim that John Washington first got the name of Town Destroyer:

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37GW inherited the Indian name given to his great-grandfather, John Washington. The name signified “town taker” or “devourer of villages.” In his “Biographical Memoranda,” comments written in 1786 on a projected biography of him by David Humphreys, GW stated that during the 1753 journey to the French commandant he “was named by the half-King (as he was called) and the tribes of Nations with whom he treated, Caunotaucarius (in English) the Town taker; which name being registered in their Manner and communicated to other Nations of Indians, has been remembered by them ever since in all their transactions with him during the late War” (anonymous donor).

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APRIL 1754 LETTER

25 April 1754  George Washington writes from Wills Creek MD (later Fort Cumberland) to Lt Gov Dinwiddie.

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Washington signs a speech he wrote to Chief Half King as  — Conotaucarious

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Founders Online footnote of this:

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8. Conotocarious (Caunotaucarius) was the Indian name of GW’s great-grandfather John Washington, signifying “town taker” or “devourer of villages.” The same name was given to GW by the Half-King. This speech is a reply to the Half-King’s speech to GW. See GW to James Hamilton, 24 April 1754, n.3.

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OCTOBER 1755 LETTER

10 October 1755, Washington refers to himself as this name, writing from Winchester VA to Andrew Montour, a metis, in this letter:

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Recommend Me kindly to our good Friend Monocatootha & others, tell them how happy it would make Conotocaurious3 to have an Opportunity of taking them by the Hand at Fort Cumberland, & how glad he would be to treat them as Brothers of our great King beyond the Waters…”

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Some observations:

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— Washington used the poetic descriptive language he picked up from the Indians, referring to King George II as “our great King beyond the Waters.”

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—  Washington used the name Conotocaurius as a force to reckon.

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— Washington wanted to show he remembered this name he was given.

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1790 Cornplanter’s Speech

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Background:

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Chief Cornplanter met with Washington 11 years after  the devastating Sullivan Expedition, a response to the Big Runaway and other British allied operations with the Indians such as Chief Joseph Brandt’s attack on German Flatts in 1778, which in turn was a response to the usurping of native land, despite attempts to draw the line not to cross in the Proclamation of 1763 and the first Treaty of Fort Stanwix 1768.

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Chief Cornplanter, heading the Seneca tribe of the Iroquois, addressed  Washington, 1 December 1790,  refering to his Town Destroyer name:

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“When your army entered the Country of the Six Nations, we called you the Town-destroyer and to this day when that name is heard, our women look behind them and turn pale, and our children cling close to the necks of their mothers.”

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Founders Online,  of Seneca Chiefs at Philadelphia make address to George Washington 1 December 1790

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A US News and World Report claims, “To this day, Town Destroyer is still used as an Iroquois name for the president of the United States.”  .

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But I cannot find any source for either claim. In fact a contradictory fact emerges.

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In the link below the Iroquois used a different name for a President, albeit for the President of the Articles of Confederation.

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Also it claims the orgin of this name was from Chief Cornplanter, but it appears the origin of this name came from others earlier than Chief Cornplanter

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From this  link http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/

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Figure 31. On June 11, 1776 while the question of independence was being debated, the visiting Iroquois chiefs were formally invited into the meeting hall of the Continental Congress. There a speech was delivered, in which they were addressed as “Brothers” and told of the delegates’ wish that the “friendship” between them would “continue as long as the sun shall shine” and the “waters run.” The speech also expressed the hope that the new Americans and the Iroquois act “as one people, and have but one heart.”[18] After this speech, an Onondaga chief requested permission to give Hancock an Indian name. The Congress graciously consented, and so the president was renamed “Karanduawn, or the Great Tree.” With the Iroquois chiefs inside the halls of Congress on the eve of American Independence, the impact of Iroquois ideas on the founders is unmistakable. History is indebted to Charles Thomson, an adopted Delaware, whose knowledge of and respect for American Indians is reflected in the attention that he gave to this ceremony in the records of the Continental Congress.[19] Artwork by John Kahionhes Fadden.

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As an aside,  2 years after that moment above, another battle of Wyoming 3 July 1778

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AND still almost a year after the Wyoming Massacre,  the devastating Sullivan Expedition began 18 June 1779

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Washington fulfills this name’s destiny

Washington writes to Sullivan, 31 May 1779 cementing Washington’s fulfilling  the name’s prophecy of  Town Destroyer.

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“The expedition you are appointed to command is to be directed against the hostile tribes of the six nations of Indians, with their associates and adherents.1 The immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible. It will be essential to ruin their crops now in the ground and prevent their planting more..

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After you have very thoroughly completed the destruction of their settlements; if the Indians should show a disposition for peace, I would have you to encourage it, on condition that they will give some decisive evidence of their sincerity by delivering up some of the principal instigators of their past hostility into our hands—Butler, Brandt, the most mischievous of the tories that have joined them…

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But you will not by any means listen to ⟨any⟩ overture of peace before the total ruin of their settlements is effected—It is likely enough their fears if they are unable to oppose us, will compel them to offers of peace, or policy may lead them, to endeavour to amuse us in this way to gain time and succour for more effectual opposition. Our future security will be in their inability to injure us the distance to which they are driven and in the terror with which the severity of the chastisement they receive will inspire ⟨them.⟩ Peace without this would be fallacious and temporary…”

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Founders Online letter 31 May 1779 Washington writes to Sullivan

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Pennsylvania historical marker site for Sullivan Expedition.

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Wikipedia article on Sullivan Expedition

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Although not germane to finding original sources of the name of Town Destroyer, please read this letter Washington writes to Armstrong 24 August 1769 about the murder of some Indians.  This letter indicates more complexity to Washington, and so for those geared to judge, please know much research is always needed to accomplish due process.

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“The report of three Indians being killd on the South Branch of Potomack is strictly true, but the manner in which it happen’d is variously related, and none of them favourable to the authors of the Mischeif—It seems this Murder (for it deserves no other name) was committed on slight provocation, upon three Indians of the Mingo Tribe; who had been to War, & as it is imagind, had also been defeated (that is the party to which they belonged) and being dispersed, took their rout through the Inhabitants for greater security when they met with the Fate I have just now mentioned—It is lucky however that there were no more than three in as much as none escapd to carry the Intelligence, and we, in consequence, may represent it in as favourable a light, as the thing will admit of, having the knowledge of it confined to our selves.

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Endeavours will be used to bring the perpetrators of this Act of Villainy to justice, but what success may attend the attempt, I will not under take to say, however certain it is, that practices of this kind ought to be suppressd by every possible means to prevent the evils that otherwise must follow…”

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See Indian Country article analysis

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David Humphreys’ Biography of George Washington, 1787–88 

Undated Memorandum

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Founders Online footnote:

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1. By GW’s account the name “Towntaker” (variously rendered as Town-destroyer) was bestowed upon him by the Seneca chief Half-King in 1753, when he met that chief on his way to Fort Le Boeuf. As GW explained in an undated memorandum on David Humphreys’ draft biography of GW: “It was on this occasion he was named by the half-King (as he was called) and the tribes of Nations with whom he treated—Caunotaucarius (in English) the Town taker; which name being registered in their Manner & communicated to other Nations of Indians, has been remembered by them ever since in all their transactions with him during the late war” (Comments on , in Papers, Confederation Series description begins W. W. Abbot et al., eds. The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series. 6 vols. Charlottesville, Va., 1992–97. description ends , 5:514–26; Zagarri, David Humphreys’ “Life of General Washington,” description begins Rosemarie Zagarri, ed. David Humphreys’ “Life of General Washington” with George Washington’s “Remarks.” Athens, Ga., 1991. description ends 10).

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See Correspondence between George Washington and David Humphreys

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wiki article on David Humphreys

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So, what about John Washington?

No source for the claim that George Washington inherited this Indian name from his great grandfather is cited in this footnote from the excellent Founders Online website:

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37GW inherited the Indian name given to his great-grandfather, John Washington. The name signified “town taker” or “devourer of villages.” In his “Biographical Memoranda,” comments written in 1786 on a projected biography of him by David Humphreys, GW stated that during the 1753 journey to the French commandant he “was named by the half-King (as he was called) and the tribes of Nations with whom he treated, Caunotaucarius (in English) the Town taker; which name being registered in their Manner and communicated to other Nations of Indians, has been remembered by them ever since in all their transactions with him during the late War” (anonymous donor).

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George Washington tells his trusted aid de Camp, his biographer, that he George was given this name, but not that he necessarily inherited it from his great grandfather.

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That claim this name was orginally given to John Washington, great grandfather of George Washington,  is echoed on many other web sites over and over but no citing of the source is ever given.

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Found no reference to the name of Town Destroyer or Conotocarious or any of its various spellings in Douglas Southall Freeman’s research on John Washington.

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However, Absence of Evidence is not Evidence of Absence.

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There’s a huge story here, ending during the Nathaniel Bacon Rebellion.   And in there we have not yet found evidence of the name Town Destroyer applied – YET.

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Stay tuned.

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George Washington from 1791 to 1799 tries to discover his family tree.

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Founders Online footnote:   Sir Isaac Heard (1730–1822), Garter Principal King of Arms, first wrote to GW on 7 Dec. 1791 enclosing some excerpts regarding the Washington family in America and a genealogy which he had drawn up of the descendants of the two Washington brothers, John (1632–1677) and Lawrence (c.1635–1677), who had immigrated to Virginia in the midseventeenth century.          Heard asked GW to fill in the blank areas in the chart…”

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To George Washington from William Augustine Washington, 23 March 1798:

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“I then wrote to Mr Lawrance, & Robt Washington of Chotanck; I got very little information from them, they said that they always understood that they were decended from Lawrence, who came over with John, our Ancestor; but Mr Robt Washington sent me word, that he understood, that Mr John Washington near Leeds, had a Genealogical Table of the Family from the first coming over of our Ancestors . . . I immediately wrote to a Mr Balmain, who married one of Mr J. Washingtons Daughters, & who had administered upon the Estate; requesting that he would examine his Testators papers & if he could find such a paper…”

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William Augustine Washington , the writer of the above letter, was George Washington’s nephew,  son of George Washington’s half brother, Augustine Washington.

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See a simple family tree diagram.

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See bottom left of chart below.  Click on picture to enlarge.  Click on Source.

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Washingtonfamilytree3

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And  now the John Washington Story

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1629 or 1633. Year of birth?

See Page 142 Volume 1  of Charles A Hoppin, The Washington Ancestry and Records of the McClain, Johnson, and Forty Other Colonial American Families (Greenfield, Ohio, 1932) “This work, limited to three hundred copies, was printed for Edward Lee McClain, Greenfield, Ohio by the Yale university press, in January 1932, hereafter referred to as Hoppin.”

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We are skipping over an interesting passage of John Washington’s life in England.  This is a story of his Dad who did well but ran into the Puritan rebellion against the Royals and lost his position and in turn lost John Washington’s future. John Washington learns the Merchant Tobacco business before joining Prescott and 2nd in charge of the Ketch, Seahorse of London going to Virginia.

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December 1656 or early 1657.  John Washington arrives in Virginia. He arrives on the ketch, Sea Horse of London. The ships   See Page 147 Volume 1, Hoppin.  or Page 15  of  Douglas Southall Freeman, George Washington, a biography, volume 1: Young Washington, hereafter referred to as Freeman.

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28 February 1657.  The Sea Horse of London on leaving, runs aground a shoal. A winter storm comes along, sinking it. The tobacco it holds is ruined. John Washington helps to raise the ketch.   See link claiming the date 28 February 1657.  And this interesting link.

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Meets Nathaniel Pope in Virginia

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Litigation.  No outcome found on this suit, See page 147 Hoppin.

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Prior to December 1658. John Washington marries Nathaniel Pope’s daughter, Ann. See pages 153-154 Hoppin.

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John Washington cannot get court to delay the trial of his former partner because the christening of his first child, George Washington’s grandfather, Lawrence is set for the same day.  John Washington elects to forego the trial and be at the christening.

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16 May 1659. The will of Nathaniel Pope.  Page 88, 115 Volume 1, Westmoreland Deeds and Wills.  This will cancels the 80 lbs. debt John Washington’s owed to Nathaniel Pope. Page 282 Hoppin.  Page 17 Freeman.

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Positions attained, Land purchases in this time period.

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Early 1661. Coroner position attained.

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3 July 1661. Vestryman of Appomattox Parish. See Westmoreland Deeds 1661-1662, page 47.  See Hoppin, page 167.

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Burgess position. Lieutenant Colonel position. Justice of the County Court position.  See Westmoreland Deeds page 20, 23.  See Hoppin, page 167, 170-171. 173.

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October 1666. The Cessation Issue.

Held at James City The 23d day of October, 1666, by adjournment from the fifth of June 1666.  John Washington is one of the men appointed to get Maryland to cease (called the “Cessation”) planting tobacco so the price could return to higher levels and give incentive to merchants to trade.  See:  Journals of the House of burgesses of Virginia, …  1659-93, page 35

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….   future links

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Summer 1675.   Thomas Mathew writes a report 30 years later July 13, 1705. He states his overseer is killed by the Indians. Here’s the account:

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“My dwelling was in Northumberland, the lowest county on  Potomack River, Stafford being the upmost, where having also a  plantation, servants, cattle, &c. my overseer had agreed with one  Rob’t Hen, to come thither, and be my herdsman, who then lived  ten miles above it ; but on a sabbath morning in the sumer anno  1675, people on their way to church, saw this Hen lying thwart his  threshold, and an Indian without the door, both chopt on their heads,  arms & other parts, as if done with Indian hatchetts, th’ Indian was dead, but Hen when asked who did that ? answered Doegs, Doegs, and soon died, then a boy who came out from under a bed where he had hid himself, and told them Indians at come at break of day &  done those murders.”

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July 1675. Reports of murders attributed to the Susquehannock.

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31 August 1675. Letter from Green Spring, home of Gov Berkeley containing a copy of an order from Council.  See pages 189-190 Hoppin and page 22-23 Freeman. John Washington doesn’t receive this letter until early September. The order is for him and Major Isaac Allerton to obtain redress from the Doeg Indians accused of 3 murders and to raise a “fit number of men” if they deemed it “requisite and necessary” and to join the Maryland forces on the Maryland side of the Potomac where the Doegs are.

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John Washington is careful. He makes this order from Council a matter of public record. See Westmoreland Deeds and Patents, 1665-1677, pages 231-232.  See page 23, Freeman.

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September 1675.   From Maryland Historical Society,page 2 : “In September the Maryland Council received a letter from Col. John Washington asking for permission to follow the enemy into Maryland with a force of men and asking cooperation from Maryland.”

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21 September 1675. John Washington’s Will recorded, before going on this military mission. Page 23 Freeman.  See Hoppin, page 29.

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Sunday, September 25 or 26.  Maryland’s Major Thomas Truman did not want to wait any longer for Virginia’s Colonel John Washington. Truman went to the Susquehanna Fort demanding a parley.  The next day the Virginians arrived.

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Aftermath. Governor Berkeley rebukes John Washington.  See Thomas Mathew’s (TM) account:

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The next forenoon, th’ Assembly being met in a chamber over  the general court & our speaker chosen, the Govern’r sent for us  down, where his hon’r with a pathetic emphasis made a short abrupt  speech wherein where these words.  ‘ ‘ If they had killed my grandfather and my grandmother, my  father and mother and all my friends, yet if they had come to treat of peace, they ought to have gone in peace, ‘ ‘ and sat down.  The two chief commanders at the aforementioned siege, who  slew the ffour Indian great men, being present and part of our  assembly. The Govern’ or stood up againe and said “if there be joy in the presence of the Angels over one sinner that repented, there is joy  ” now, for we have a penitent sinner come before us, call Mr. Bacon; …”

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Another Summary of the incident  from this link. :  “John Washington, the great-grandfather of George Washington, headed a party of Virginians to the assistance of Maryland and the welfare on both sides was conducted with the utmost ferocity. When six of the Indians came to treat for peace, they were murdered by the Colonists and here again we see the spirit of the Cavalier in Berkeley’s rebuke, “If they had killed my father and my mother and all my friends, yet if they had come to treat of peace, they ought to have gone in peace.” When the Indians, mad for revenge, started their awful reprisals, Berkeley refused the Colonists the right to arm themselves for defence.  Then it was that Nathaniel Bacon, disregarding orders, formed a “rebel army” which ultimately forced Berkeley to yield. “

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A report by T.M. — its provenance

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Provenance: A record of ownership of a work of art or an antique, used as a guide to authenticity or quality.

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This 1833 edition seems to have lost a few pages of a very interesting Introduction. This Introduction reproduces a story written by a Thomas Mathew.

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This is the story that shows how John Washington might have earned the name TOWN DESTROYER, but the story does not indicate any Indian bestowing on him the name.

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How was this report by T.M. found?

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This story was in President Thomas Jefferson’s library collection which he then donated to the Library of Congress. Thomas Jefferson explains he received this story from a Mr. King, minister plenipotentiary in the court of London in 1803, who purchased it from a bookseller, and somehow the bookseller got it from Lord Oxford who desired a report from a Thomas Mathew, a report he wrote 30 years after the incident, to unravel the details how this incident led to the Indian Wars which led in part to Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion of 1675-1676.

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See this report written by Thomas Mathew reproduced in the Introduction, pages xxi to xxx of    A History of the Valley of Virginia by Samuel Kercheval (1833; 3rd ed. 1902)

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And President Jefferson did not know that T.M., the author of the story was Thomas Mathew.  Jefferson wrote:

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“It appears to have been written by a person  intimately acquainted with its origin, progress and conclusion, thirty  years after it took place, and when the passion of the day had  subsided, and reason might take a cool aud deliberate review of the  transaction. It was written, too, not for public eye, but to satisfy the  desire of minister Lord Oxford…and  he subscribes the initials of his name T. M. Whether the records  of the time, (if they still exist) , with the aid of these circumstances,  will show what his name was, remains for further inquiry.”

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Maryland Historical Magazine Volume 36, 1941 ,  indicates who T.M. was — Thomas Mathew, and the report discusses his story.

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T.M.’S WILD STORY ITSELF

This is the story that shows how John Washington might have earned the name TOWN DESTROYER, but the story does not indicate any Indian bestowing on him the name.

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The story told by T.M.  in his own words: Introduction, pages xxi to xxx from the book, A History of the Valley of Virginia by Samuel Kercheval (1833; 3rd ed. 1902)

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The source for who TM was and some analysis of the story : Maryland Historical Magazine Volume 36, 1941

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See Another link: “Mathew’s Narrative,” in Charles M. Andrews, ed., Narratives of the Insurrections, 1675-1690, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1915), 17.

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FORT SUSQUEHANNOCK  – an Indian Fort

The Susquehannock Fort at mouth of Piscataway Creek, eastern shore Maryland, sitting across the Potomac River from a future Mt Vernon.

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This fort went under seige for 6 weeks. By then the whites were exhausted and not feeling so wonderful about what they did earlier. What they did earlier was to kill those 10 Indian Chiefs (other accounts state 6)  who came outside of the fort in peace to parley. Then the rest of the Indians hunkered in their fort for a 6 week siege. Finally at night the Susquehannocks escaped. The Whites had a motivated enemy. John Washington got a rebuke from Gov Berkeley. And Trent of Maryland got a penalty from the MD colony legislature.  But the Indians? They weren’t done with this yet.

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Excellent Source:  Maryland Historical Magazine Volume 36, 1941 .

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Here is another  link  which is politically charged but it does reference some points and chronology of what happened. See link.

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A picture of this fort was drawn by contemporary eyes at the time. See the picture in:  Maryland Historical Magazine Volume 36, 1941    :

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“… in 1677 there was a Royal Commission of Investigation.  In 1910 Professor Wertenbaker found a map of the Susquehannock Fort (Fig. 1) in the British Public Record Office.”

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Click on maps supplied by   Maryland Historical Magazine Volume 36, 1941  .

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fort susquehannock mockleymap fort susquehannock archeology diagram fort susquehannock overview

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To find Fort Susquehannock, click on upper right corner square icon. This will open a new tab window. On top left corner you will see a magnifying glass icon. Click on that and type Fort Susquehannock and press enter or return.

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LINKS about John Washington

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Page 28 about Lt Col John Washington,

Archaeological studies of the Susquehannock Indians of Pennsylvania by Cadzow, Donald A published 1936   Pa Historical Commission Volume III  Harrisburg

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Washington family tree http://www.archives.com/genealogy/president-washington.html

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page 414 start of info on John Washington

page 425 pictures of some descendents

Ancestral records and portraits : a compilation from the archives of Chapter I, the Colonial Dames of America, 1910

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RESEARCH

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Charles A Hoppin, The Washington Ancestry and Records of the McClain, Johnson, and Forty Other Colonial American Families (Greenfield, Ohio, 1932) “This work, limited to three hundred copies, was printed for Edward Lee McClain, Greenfield, Ohio by the Yale university press, in January 1932.”

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A speech from Half King addressing Lt Gov Dinwiddie does not mention Town Destroyer or any of its variant spellings.  See page 31 of book: MINUTES, PROVINCIAL COUNCIL PENNSYLVANIA, from the organization to the termination  of the proprietary government. published by the state. vol. vi. containing the proceedings of council from. April 2d, 1754, to January 29th, 1756, both days included. Harrisburg:  printed by Theo. Fenn & Co 1851, and Founders Online link mentions same letter, from George Washington to James Hamilton, 24 April 1754 

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Source: Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and Their Descendants, A History of Frederick County, Virginia (ILLUSTRATED) From its Formation in 1738 to 1908 Compiled Mainly from Original Records of Old Frederick County, now Hampshire, Berkeley, Shenandoah, Jefferson, Hardy, Clarke, Warren, Morgan and Frederick…..by  T. K. Cartmell Clerk of the Old County Court

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Susquehannock Fort at the mouth of Piscataway Creek, eastern shore Maryland

Source Maryland Historical Magazine Volume 36, 1941

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An ancestor of Robert E Lee and Zachary Taylor, Major Isaac Allerton in 1667 served under Colonel John Washington, great-grandfather of our first president George, in order to subdue Susquehannock and Doeg Indians…        See Source.

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ORIGINAL NARRATIVES OF EARLY AMERICAN HISTORY REPRODUCED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE
AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION  General Editor, J. FRANKLIN JAMESON, Ph.D., LL.D., LlTT.D.  DIRECTOR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE  CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON …..   NARRATIVES OF THE INSURRECTIONS 1675-1690 EDITED BY CHARLES M. ANDREWS, Ph.D., L.H.D. FAKNAM PROFESSOR OF AMERICAN HISTORY IN YALE UNIVERSITY WITH THREE FACSIMILES CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS NEW YORK  1915

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One of many historicals signs for the Sullivan Expedition started 18 June 1779

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From a Founders Online Editorial Note:

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David Humphreys wrote GW from France on 30 Sept. 1784 about the utility of having a biography of George Washington, particularly one written by GW himself. In early 1785 Humphreys began suggesting himself as a possible biographer, to which GW agreed (Humphreys to GW, 15 Jan. 1785, GW to Humphreys, 25 July 1785). Humphreys apparently started work on the biography when he visited Mount Vernon in the late summer of 1786 (Zagarri, Humphreys’ Life, description begins Rosemarie Zagarri, ed. David Humphreys’ “Life of General Washington” with George Washington’s “Remarks.” Athens, Ga., 1991. description ends xix); but he must have written most of it after his return to Mount Vernon in November 1787, where he remained until GW traveled to New York in April 1789 to assume the presidency.

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Remarks, 1787–1788

These are George Washington’s remarks on Humphrey’s biography draft from the Founders Online web site.

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Sulgrave Manor link

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George Washington National Monument’s page on John Washington

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