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Mar
15

Boscawen Street Winchester VA

By
When:
January 10, 2018 all-day
2018-01-10T00:00:00-05:00
2018-01-11T00:00:00-05:00
Where:
W Boscawen St
Winchester, VA 22601
USA

Compiled, written by Jim Moyer 3/15/2018

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This page is unfinished.  Further updates and editing coming.

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EDWARD BOSCAWEN

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Click on all pictures to enlarge.

Boscawen Street

Next time

you drive down

Boscawen Street

in Winchester VA,

think of the massive story

of this old Admiral.

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Boscawen played a part in India 1747 to 1750.

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Five years later Boscawen is intercepting French transports to Canada June 8, 1755, one month before Braddock’s defeat.

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Three years after this, July 26, 1758,  Boscawen, along with Amherst and Wolfe “reduce” Fortress Louisbourg.

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This victory was payback

Lord Loudoun attempted but turned back in 1757.  Before that,  Fortress Louisbourg was captured in 1745 only to be given back to the French in 1748.

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So, this victory is celebrated throughout the colonies and especially celebrated in Colonel Washington’s Fort Loudoun in Winchester VA and by the founder of that town, James Wood,  who then proposed these 3 heroes to be names of its streets.

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James Wood

Shown in photo is Stevan Resan, as James Wood, availed himself for all those who visited Fort Loudoun Winchester VA on Presidents Day, February 19, 2018.  Steve Resan is VP on the Board of the French and Indian War Foundation.

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Click on newspaper to enlarge.

Water Street

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Fitting that for an old Admiral

this street was called

Water Street for years

until March 2, 1926.

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Winchester City Council

voted to change this

Water Street

back to the original name of

Boscawen Street.

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The names of  Boscawen, Amherst, Wolfe were picked by James Wood September 21, 1758 after the Victory over Fortress Louisbourg   July 26, 1758 and approved by the House of Burgesses October 5, 1758.

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Source of map above: Pages 50, Garland R. Quarles author. “Winchester, Virginia Streets, Churches, Schools” published by Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society, compiled in 1996 of Streets 1958, Churches 1960, and Schools 1964.

But that name of Water Street

was because it parallels the Town Run

and because it is the lowest point

and center of a trough

with hill both north and south of it.

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3 Heroes

Think of Fortress of Louisbourg.

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That place is why we have 3 streets named after the heroes who “reduced” it.

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And our old Admiral Boscawen is one of them.

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Now?  He’s just a street you drive on.  At least here in Winchester VA.  🙂

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1777 map made by a Hessian Prisoner captured the day after George Washington famously crossed the Delaware to attack Trenton on Christmas Day. This prisoner’s map indicates some of the streets in James Wood’s 1758 addition to Winchester still weren’t formed by 1777. Click on picture to enlarge. The overlay of the modern street and the captions and map work compiled and designed by Wilbur S Johnston.

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Source:

Pages 46-47, 81-82. Garland R. Quarles author. “Winchester, Virginia Streets, Churches, Schools” published by Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society, compiled in 1996 of Streets 1958, Churches 1960, and Schools 1964.

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This 1777 map still doesn’t show BOSCAWEN or WOLFE or AMHERST Street built yet.

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James Wood submitted on  September 21, 1758 ALL 3 STREETS   to the House of Burgesses who approved the plans October 5, 1758.

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Historical sites on Boscawen Street

Lots of historical places on Boscawen Street.

But the name itself is a story.

There are 4 stories related to

Boscawen

for you to view at your leisure:

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  1. Siege of Louisbourg

  2. Capturing  Toussaint Hocquart 3 times

  3. Hanging Admiral Byng

  4. Dunkirk

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Siege of Louisbourg


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Siege of Louisbourg (8 June–26 July 1758)

You will notice 3 names here.

Boscawen.

Amherst.

Wolfe.

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If you’ve ever been in Winchester VA, you will have seen those 3 street names.

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Winchester VA has a 4th street

connected to Fortress Louisbourg:

Loudoun Street.

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But this street was already named

previous to

James Wood’s 1758 planned addition.

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After an expedition against Louisbourg in 1757 led by Lord Loudon was turned back due to a strong French naval deployment, the British under the leadership of William Pitt resolved to try again with new commanders.  – Wikipedia

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VICTORY !
“Reducing” Fortress Louisbourg was huge.

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It was celebrated at home in England, and here in the colonies.

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And the 3 who accomplished this victory became well known heroes everywhere.

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PAYBACK.

The colonists under Massachusetts Governor Shirley who organized financing,  had won Fortress Louisbourg in 1745 at great effort and cost only to see the politicians return it back to France in in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748.

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SOME HIGHLIGHTS:

7 February 1758 Boscawen becomes Admiral of the blue squadron, months prior to the Seige of Louisbourg.

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June 8, 1758 marks the beginning of the siege, from Wikipedia summary:

Weather conditions in the first week of June made any landing impossible and the British were only able to mount a bombardment of the improvised shore defenses of Gabarus Bay from a frigate. However, conditions improved, and at daybreak on 8 June Amherst launched his assault using a flotilla of large boats, organized in seven divisions, each commanded by one of his brigadiers. French defenses were initially successful and after heavy losses, Wolfe ordered a retreat. However, at the last minute, a boatload of light infantry in Wolfe’s division (i.e., members of Rogers Rangers) found a rocky inlet protected from French fire and secured a beachhead. Wolfe redirected the rest of his division to follow

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June 8 to July 26, 1758 – Boscawn took naval command at the Siege of Louisburg

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25 July 1758 Admiral Boscawen sent raiders to destroy two French ships, capturing Bienfaisant and burning Prudent, eliminating any further resistance in the harbour.  James Cook, was there. He recorded it in his ship’s log.

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The land assault was commanded by General Jeffrey Amherst and Brigadier James Wolfe.

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Wolfe  later would use Louisburg

as a staging point

for the Siege of Quebec,

immortalized in a painting

by Benjamin West.

See the Heroic Story on James Wolfe.

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BOSCAWEN REWARDED

Boscawen receives Thanks of both Houses of Parliament for his service.

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King George II

rewarded Boscawen

with the position

Privy Counsellor.

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Boscawen was already

on the Board of Admiralty

and was a commander-in-chief

of different theatres.

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NICKNAMES

Old Dreadnought.

Click on this old story, page 281

and look to page on right just below center.

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Wry-necked Dick, page 100, bottom.

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TWO MORE STORIES ON BOSCAWEN

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Before the Seige of Louisbourg, our old Admiral

had gained much experience.

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Out of that experience, we just plucked 2 stories for you to see.

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One was the capture of the same French leader 3 times.

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The other was Boscawen’s involvement in the  execution of Admiral Byng

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The Story of Capturing

Toussaint Hocquart

3 times


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FIRST TIME in 1744

French attempt  invasion of England.

Boscawen was with the fleet under Admiral Norris.

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The French Admiral Rocquefeuil retreats.

But, Boscawen captures the French frigate Médée.

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This was the first capture of an enemy ship made during the War of Austrian Succession and was commanded by M. de HocquartMédée was sold and became a successful privateer under her new name Boscawen commanded by George Walker.

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This was also the first out of 3 captures of the same Frenchman – Toussaint Hocquart ( M. de Hocquart )

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2ND TIME in 1747

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First Battle of Cape Finisterre (1747)

Battle of Cape Finisterre 1747 by Samuel Scott FROM WIKIPEDIA

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Boscawen is under the command of another awesome Admiral –  Anson.  Admiral Anson has quite a story too.

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3 May 1747 –  French  Admiral de la Jonquière was guarding his  merchant ships coming backconvoying its merchant fleet to France when the British attacked and .

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All but two of the French ships were taken, as well as nine East India merchantmen.

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Boscawen was injured in the shoulder during the battle by a musket ball.

 

For the 2nd time out of 3,  French captain, M. de Hocquart became Boscawen’s prisoner..

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Then Boscawen is in India 1747 to 1750.

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THIRD TIME in 1755

4 February 1755

Boscawen was

promoted vice admiral,

and given command

of a squadron on the

North American Station ,

and heading toward

Fortress Louisbourg,

just as most of

Braddock’s troops

were finishing transport

to Hampton Roads VA.

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See story of 8 June 1755,

one Month before

Braddock’s Defeat, 9 July 1755

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_8_June_1755

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Boscawen was ordered to intercept a squadron of partially disarmed French ships of the line to Canada loaded with reinforcements.

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Act of War?

The French ambassador to London, the Duc de Mirepoix had informed the government of George II that any act of hostility taken by British ships would be considered an act of war.

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Thick Fog

Thick fog both obstructed Boscawen’s reconnaissance and scattered the French ships, but on 8 June Boscawen’s fleet sighted the AlcideLys and Dauphin Royal off Cape Ray off Newfoundland. .

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In the ensuing engagement the British captured the Alcide and Lys but the Dauphin Royal escaped into the fog.

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Hocquart Captured 3rd Time !

Amongst the 1,500 men made prisoner was the captain of the Alcide,  M. de Hocquart.

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TREASURE !

Pay amounting to £80,000 was captured aboard the Lys.  Boscawen, as admiral of the fleet, would have been entitled to a sizeable share in the prize money. The British fleet headed for Halifax to regroup but a fever spread through the ships and the Admiral was forced to return to England.

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Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Boscawen#Seven_Years’_War

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Who Personally Captures Hocquart?

Captain Richard Howe

of HMS Dunkirk

personally captures

Toussaint Hocquart

not Boscawen

who was commander of the squad.

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WAR OR PEACE?

Toussaint Hocquart commanded the Alcide in 1755.

Captured on June 8, 1755 .

Hocquart shouts three times

with a megaphone:

“Are we at war or in peace?”

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Richard Howe ,

captain of HMSDunkirk ,

answers: “In peace, in peace”.

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THE BATTLE

But as soon as the Dunkirk is half a pistol range, his guns open fire on the Alcide .

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The Alcide being better armed than the other two French ships, replies to the British fire and bravely fights for five hours. But having suffered major damage, he eventually lowered his flag, just like the Lily . The Royal Dauphin manages to escape through the fog and return to the mainland.

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https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toussaint_Hocquart&prev=search

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Another version of last capture:

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WILL YOU SEE THE ADMIRAL?

The Captain on the HMS Dunkirk asks if the Frenchman will see the British Admiral Boscawen.

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Not such an innocent request was it?

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The Dunkirk and the Defiance , part of the squadron under Vice Admiral Boscawen, approaches the Alcide  , a 64-gun ship under the overall command of Dubois de La Motte  and asks Captain Hocquart de Blincourt to meet the vice admiral .

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The French Captain refuses. 

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THE BATTLE

The Dunkirk opens fire.

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A short time later, HMS Edgarin tackled the Alcide , which carried 900 troops and the governor of Louisbourg .

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The general of the embarked military is killed and 30,000 pounds captured. In battle, another French ship, the Lys , is captured by HMS Fougueux .

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And so Captain Toussaint Hocquart de Blincourt is captured a third time by ships under the command of Vice Admiral Boscawen.

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Source:

1754 HMS Dunkirk

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See also Alcide

 

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Hanging Admiral Byng


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The Execution of Admiral John Byng aboard HMS Monarch.

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Boscawen returned to the Channel Fleet and was commander-in-chief Portsmouth during the trial of Admiral John Byng 1704 – 14 March 1757). Boscawen signed the order of execution after the King had refused to grant the unfortunate admiral a pardon. Boscawen was advanced to Senior Naval Lord on the Admiralty Board in November 1756 but then stood down (as Senior Naval Lord although he remained on the Board) in April 1757, during the caretaker ministry, before being advanced to Senior Naval Lord again in July 1757.

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Links

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Louisbourg_(1758)

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeffery_Amherst,_1st_Baron_Amherst#Louisbourg

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Boscawen#Siege_of_Louisburg

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Wolfe#Louisbourg

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Wolfe Street Winchester VA

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One more story:

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Dunkirk


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MOVIES

Two Movies came out in 2017, The Darkest Hour, and Dunkirk.

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Jean Bart (21 October 1650 – 27 April 1702) was a French naval commander and privateer and a popular hero of the French Navy. He captured a total of 386 ships and also sank or burned a great number more. The town of Dunkirk has honoured his memory by erecting a statue and by naming a public square after him. In World War II, 70% of Dunkirk was destroyed, but the statue survived.

The Darkest Hour focused on Churchill assuming the Prime Minister position right at the moment in May to save the entire British Army encircled by the Nazis in Dunkirk, France.

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And the 2nd movie, Dunkirk, focused on the view of the survivors, and of the private armada sent out to save them.

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Modern audiences know Dunkirk this way.

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WHAT WAS DUNKIRK BEFORE?

People of  the past knew Dunkirk differently.

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In those days of the French and Indian War and prior, Dunkirk was notable for other reasons.

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It was an independent Pirate City.

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For that reason, one of the ships in Boscawen’s squad was named the HMS Dunkirk.

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And it was also thought by the English to be a launching point for France to invade England.

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For that reason, the Paris Peace Treaty of 1763, ending the French and Indian War,  stipulated a condition that any fortification at Dunkirk be dismantled.

 

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