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Boston Massacre

By
When:
March 5, 2018 all-day
2018-03-05T00:00:00-05:00
2018-03-06T00:00:00-05:00

Compiled and written by Jim Moyer 3/7/18, 3/8/18, 6/24/2018, 12/12/2019

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Boston Massacre dates

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Picture by Paul Revere. From Wikipedia. Notice on top left corner a picture of the moon that shows this happened at night.

March 5, 1770,

the Boston Massacre is  

7 years after the French and Indian War.

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March 7, 1770,

the accusations are raised in court.

The  indictment and arraignment.

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October to December 1770

court trials are held on the Boston Massacre.

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December 3-4, 1770 is John Adams Defense of the British Soldiers, using English law concepts.

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Compiled by Jim Moyer in 2017, updated  3/9/2018, 6/22/2018, 12/12/2019

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Where was Washington?


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 Where was he during the October and November trials held after the March 5th Boston Massacre in 1770  ?

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Picture drawn by Jim Moyer, imagining the woods of this land GW was inspecting. . . . . Just around the bend might have been the biggest Sycamore ever recorded in history and it was recorded by Washington.

He was out on the Ohio River,

exploring land promised 16 years ago

by  Lt Gov Dinwiddie in 1754.  

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This land was for

the soldiers of 1754,

who wore red breeches

not for the soldiers  

who wore blue breeches

in the 1755 Braddock disaster, 

which is why we think

the first portrait of George Washington

in 1772

shows him donning his

French and Indian War uniform,

wearing red breeches.

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See portrait below.

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Dates of Washington’s Journey:

October 5, 1770 to December 1, 1770

Click on Story about this journey.

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First known portrait of George Washington. Portrait is by Charles Willson Peale, 1772. Touch or Click to Enlarge.

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Two years later in 1772,

GW poses for his first known portrait.

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He chooses to pose in his French and Indian War uniform.

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Fort Loudoun still in operation?

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7 years after the Boston Massacre,

1777, Fort Loudoun, in Winchester VA,

is utilized again  for prisoners of the Revolutionary War.

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About the Boston Massacre

Trials


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FACTS ARE STUBBORN THINGS

Our future 2nd President John Adams said it.

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The following is part of the transcript of the summation of John Adams in Rex v Wemms, The Soldiers Trial, December 3-4, 1770.

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Touch or Click to Enlarge

Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions,

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they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence:

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nor is the law less stable than the fact;

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if an assault was made to endanger their lives,

the law is clear,

they had a right to kill in their own defence;

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if it was not so severe as to endanger their lives,

yet if they were assaulted at all,

struck and abused by blows of any sort,

by snow-balls,

oyster-shells,

cinders,

clubs, or sticks of any kind;

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this was a provocation,

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for which the law reduces the offence of killing,

down to manslaughter,

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in consideration

of those passions

in our nature,

which cannot be eradicated.

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To your candour and justice I submit the prisoners and their cause.

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Source:

Summation of John Adams in Rex v Wemms

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Many years later NY Senator Patrick Moynihan  says something very similar to John Adams’ “Facts are Stubborn Things” :

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Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.

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But we know “facts” as presented may turn out not to be as presented.

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We also know “facts”  like statistics can distort the view.

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Why Separate Trials?

One for the officer and one for the men?


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Captain Thomas Preston’s Defense?

If Preston should fail in his primary defense, that is, that the killings were justifiable, then he would probably have to argue that the men fired against or without his orders.

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Touch or Click to Enlarge

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The Soldiers Defense?

The men,on the other hand, would argue that it was indeed Preston who gave the order to fire, and that they had merely obeyed his command.

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Mutual Finger Pointing?

Were the officer to be tried in the same proceedings with the men, the resultant mutual finger-pointing might well convince the jury to find all the defendants guilty.

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Split up the Case

Perhaps in part to avoid this difficulty, the decision was taken at some time to sever the trials.

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Conflict of Interest

That eased the immediate danger of a mass conviction, but it did not change the professional problem faced by Josiah Quincy and Adams (who was to argue in both trials).

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Engaged as they were for all the defendants, Quincy and Adams ran a substantial risk that their efforts in Preston’s trial might seriously embarrass the defense of the men.

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Source:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/05-03-02-0001-0001#LJA03d001n49-ptr

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The Captain Thomas Preston Trial

Rex v. Preston 

Suffolk Superior Court, Boston


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October 24-30, 1770

The Decision on Captain Preston:

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Description of the Mob:

They attacked the prisoner [Captain Thomas Preston] and his party with pieces of ice, sticks, and clubs; and that even one of the witnesses against him, confessed he was armed with a Highland broadsword; that the rioters had knocked down one of the soldiers of the party, laid hold of several of their muskets, and that, before the soldiers fired, the cry was, Knock them down! Kill them! Kill them! 

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Right to be there:

…the King had a right to send his troops here; that the Commanding Officer of these troops had a right to place a Centinel at the Custom-house: that the Centinel placed there on the night of the 5th of March was in the King’s peace; that he durst not quit his post; that if he was insulted or attacked, the Captain of the Guard had a right to protect him; that the prisoner and his party, who came there for that purpose, were in the King’s peace; that while they were at the custom-house, for the purpose of protecting the centinel …

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Not Guilty:

Judge Oliver,

who spoke next, began with representing, in a very nervous and pathetic manner, the insults and outrages which he, and the Court through him, had received on a former occasion (meaning the trial of Richardson) for giving his opinion in a point of law; that, notwithstanding, he was resolved to do his duty to his God, his King, and his country; that he despised both insults and threats, and that he would not forego a moment’s peace of conscience for the applause of millions. He agreed in sentiment with the former Judge, that the prisoner was not guilty.

 

Judge Cushing

spoke next, and agreed entirely with the other two, with regard to the prisoner’s case.

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Judge Lynde

concluded. He spoke a considerable time, and was of the same opinion with the other Judges. Towards the close of his speech he said, “Happy I am to find, that, after such strict examination, the conduct of the prisoner appears in so fair a light; yet I feel myself, at the same time, deeply affected, that this affair turns out so much to the disgrace of every person concerned against him, and so much to the shame of the town in general.”

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Founders Online:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/05-03-02-0001-0003-0014

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Summary of the Case:

October of 1770, Captain Preston

was tried for murder in a Boston courtroom. He was defended by John Adams and Robert Auchmuty and assisted by Josiah Quincy Jr.

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Captain Preston was acquitted by a Boston jury.  . . .

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Source:

http://www.bostonmassacre.net/timeline.htm

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Founders Online

lists 14 documents

related to the Preston case:

https://founders.archives.gov/ancestor/ADMS-05-03-02-0001-0003

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Captain Thomas Preston‘s life after the trial:

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http://boston1775.blogspot.com/2017/09/capt-thomas-preston-in-retirement.html

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The Soldiers Trial

Rex v. Wemms

Suffolk Superior Court, Boston


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November 27 – Dec 14, 1770

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Excerpt of John Adams Defense:

When the multitude was shouting and huzzaing, and threatning life, the bells all ringing, the mob whistle screaming and rending like an Indian yell, the people from all quarters throwing every species of rubbish they could pick up in the street, and some who were quite on the other side of the street throwing clubs at the whole party, Montgomery in particular, smote with a club and knocked down, and as soon as he could rise and take up his firelock, another club from a far struck his breast or shoulder, what could he do?

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Do you expect he should behave like a Stoick Philosopher lost in Apathy? Patient as Epictatus while his master was breaking his leggs with a cudgel ?

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It is impossible you should find him guilty of murder. You must suppose him divested of all human passions, if you don’t think him at the least provoked, thrown off his guard, and into the furor brevis, by such treatment as this.

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The above excerpt is part of the defense that includes the famous quote, “Facts are stubborn things…”

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Source of above is

Founders Online:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/05-03-02-0001-0004-0016

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Summary of the Soldiers’ Case

 The eight British soldiers accused of murder were tried separately from their officer Captain Preston. But just like the Preston’s trial the proceedings were delayed by 8 months after the incident to allow emotions to cool down.

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As a result of the trial, six soldiers were acquitted on the grounds of self-defense, but two were found guilty of murder because of the overpowering proof that they fired into the crowd.

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Source:

http://www.bostonmassacre.net/timeline.htm

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When the soldiers case

came to trial soon after they were defended by [John] Adams, [Josiah] Quincy, and Sampson Salter Blowers.

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Source:

http://www.bostonmassacre.net/timeline.htm

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Founders Online

lists 14 documents with the Soldiers case:

https://founders.archives.gov/ancestor/ADMS-05-03-02-0001-0004

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Another timeline source:

http://www.famous-trials.com/massacre/197-chronology

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The Distortions,

the Propaganda


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Many witnesses described a scared young group of British soldiers surrounded by a mob throwing rocks and glass and holding clubs and grabbing the soldier’s muskets.  Witnesses also heard people behind the crowd incite the soldiers to Shoot ! Shoot! Shoot!

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Detail of Massacre on King Street, painted by Paul Revere … later called the Boston Massacre.

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Pictures published by Paul Revere distorted the truth about the mob of citizens and were taught by school teachers over 200 years.

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http://www.bostonmassacre.net/gravure.htm

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Only 2 were convicted of manslaughter.  But how did 5 die then?  And a 6th reportedly years later. And how could those frightened soldiers reload?  How could they reload  while the mob  had  clubs and who were grabbing at the soldiers’ guns?

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WAS IT ALL PROPAGANDA AND LIES?


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Was it propaganda taught in our public schools for 200 years later?

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Yes and No.

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John Adams’ reflection on the 3rd anniversary best sums up two ways of looking at this:

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1773. March 5th. Fryday.

Heard an Oration, at Mr. Hunts Meeting House,1 by Dr. Benja. Church, in Commemoration of the Massacre in Kings Street, 3 Years ago. That large Church was filled and crouded in every Pew, Seat, Alley, and Gallery, by an Audience of several Thousands of People of all Ages and Characters and of both Sexes.

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Why it was right to defend those British soldiers:

I have Reason to remember that fatal Night. The Part I took in Defence of Captn. Preston and the Soldiers, procured me Anxiety, and Obloquy enough. It was, however, one of the most gallant, generous, manly and disinterested Actions of my whole Life, and one of the best Pieces of Service I ever rendered my Country. Judgment of Death against those Soldiers would have been as foul a Stain upon this Country as the Executions of the Quakers or Witches, anciently. As the Evidence was, the Verdict of the Jury was exactly right.

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Standing Armies lead to dangers

This however is no Reason why the Town should not call the Action of that Night a Massacre, nor is it any Argument in favour of the Governor or Minister, who caused them to be sent here. But it is the strongest of Proofs of the Danger of standing Armies.

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Founders Online diary of John Adams

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/01-02-02-0003-0002-0002

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The Soldiers Trial

Branding “M”

on their thumbs


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“The defense was called the ‘benefit of the clergy’ and reduced the change from murder to manslaughter by simply proving that the accused … were simply literate enough to read from the Bible.

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However the two privates were punished by branding ‘M’ on their thumbs. This was done to prevent from using the same defense in the future.”

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From source:

http://www.bostonmassacre.net/unknown-facts.htm

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The Soldiers Trial

Six Acquitted

Two Convicted


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From Wikipedia:

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The jury agreed with Adams and acquitted six of the soldiers after two and one-half hours’ deliberation.

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Two of the soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter because there was overwhelming evidence that they had fired directly into the crowd.

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The jury’s decisions suggest that they believed the soldiers had felt threatened by the crowd, but should have delayed firing.[67]

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Patrick Carr, the fifth victim, corroborated this with deathbed testimony delivered to his doctor.

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The convicted soldiers were granted reduced sentences by pleading benefit of clergy,

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which reduced

their punishment

from a death sentence

to branding of the thumb

in open court.

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Wikipedia:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_Massacre#Trials

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Best Thing He Ever Did


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Our future 2nd President John Adams wrote this in his diary 3 years after the Massacre.

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The Part I took in Defence of Cptn. Preston and the Soldiers, procured me Anxiety, and Obloquy enough. It was, however, one of the most gallant, generous, manly and disinterested Actions of my whole Life, and one of the best Pieces of Service I ever rendered my Country. Judgment of Death against those Soldiers would have been as foul a Stain upon this Country as the Executions of the Quakers or Witches, anciently. As the Evidence was, the Verdict of the Jury was exactly right.

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Source:

1773. March 5th. Fryday

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/01-02-02-0003-0002-0002

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Was that Quote YEARS LATER?

Some website links indicate John Adams expressed this sentiment:  “Years after he became the the second president of the United States Adams remembered the trials” 

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This may be so, but the link quotes from John Adams’ diary written 3 years after the Boston Massacre —  not years later, after he no longer was President.

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If John Adams still expressed that sentiment years after he was no longer President, we have found no such quote.

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There might be a quote to find. We just haven’t found it.

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He may have still felt that way long after, but those words were written much earlier.

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Who Yelled SHOOT?

Who Yelled FIRE?


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http://www.bostonmassacre.net/players/Hugh-Montgomery.htm

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Summation of John Adams in Rex v Wemms: .

The next witness is Dodge, he says, there were fifty people near the soldiers pushing at them; now the witness before says, there were twelve sailors with clubs, but now here are fifty more aiding and abetting of them, ready to relieve them in case of need; now what could the people expect? It was their business to have taken themselves out of the way; some prudent people by the Town-house, told them not to meddle with the guard, but you bear nothing of this from these fifty people; no, instead of that, they were huzzaing and whistling, crying damn you, fire! why don’t you fire? So that they were actually assisting these twelve sailors that made the attack; he says the soldiers were pushing at the people to keep them off, ice and snow-balls were thrown, and I heard ice rattle on their guns, there were some clubs thrown from a considerable distance across the street. This witness swears he saw snow-balls thrown close before the party, and he took them to be thrown on purpose, be saw oyster-shells likewise thrown.-Mr. Langford the watchman

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Source:

Summation of John Adams in Rex v Wemms

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The Mob


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How was the mob described?

 

” . . . outside agitators, “a motley rabble of saucy boys, negroes and molattoes, Irish teagues, and out landish Jack tarrs.”

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Source:

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https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/05-03-02-0001-0001#LJA03d001n99-ptr

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What did THEY

originally

call the Massacre?


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Before the “The Boston Massacre” name became common,

the incident

was also called

The Bloody Massacre in King Street,

from the title of the

famous Paul Revere engraving.

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In the early 1800’s it was also called the State Street Massacre.

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Source:

http://www.bostonmassacre.net/facts-and-numbers.htm

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Another Distortion

Attucks Crispus


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Attucks  Crispus,  was hailed in Life Magazine as a hero.

But evidence at the trial?

Read about that.

http://www.crispusattucksmuseum.org/crispus-attucks-role-in-the-boston-massacre/

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http://golden-legacy.com/magazine-titles/

 

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https://www.google.com/search?q=crispus+attucks+life+magazine+1968&safe=active&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwidkrezgNvZAhXQm-AKHfVKCaIQ_AUICygC&biw=1272&bih=869#imgrc=Xl_6yGzOPO_1tM:&spf=1520452897634

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Founders Online Links


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From Founders Online:

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Because of the length and the complex interrelationship of the documentation for the trials growing out of the incident, the editorial treatment varies from that given to other cases in this edition.

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The material has been arranged in five parts:

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(1) An editorial introduction;

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(2) A “Descriptive List of Sources and Documents,” by the editor in chief, describing in some detail for the reader’s guidance the sources, manuscript and printed, and which lists the numerous documents;

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(3) Rex v. Preston, No. 63, Documents I–XIV, with footnotes running in a single sequence throughout;

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(4) Rex v. Wemms, No. 64, Documents I–XXII, with footnotes running in a single sequence throughout;

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(5) An alphabetical list, with explanations in modern terms so far as possible, of the numerous streets, buildings, and other landmarks mentioned in the testimony and arguments.

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Source:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/05-03-02-0001-0001

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A list of all documents

relating to the Boston Massacre:

https://founders.archives.gov/ancestor/ADMS-05-03-02-0001

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Description of a Mob 5 years earlier:

August 1765


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Thomas Hutchinson, then the chief justice of the highest court in Massachusetts—and no friend of the Stamp Act—had his Boston house gutted by an angry mob in August 1765. The mob more or less dismantled it brick by brick while his furniture and possessions were stolen or smashed in the streets. Hinderaker estimates $300,000 to $450,000 damage in today’s money.

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Source:

http://www.weeklystandard.com/remembering-the-boston-massacre/article/2011822

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Not Related —

But what was the condition of Fort Loudoun

during this time?


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Fort Loudoun Winchester VA

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French and Indian War Foundation brochure showing Fort Loudoun Winchester VA. Building of it went on from 1756 to 1758.

THE DOUBLE WALLS

During 1770 the year

of the Boston Massacre

and its trials,

the 16 foot double walls

(made of square hewn logs

resting sideways)

of Fort Loudoun Winchester VA,

were in stages of being dismantled

and re-used to build homes in town.

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The Barracks were still standing. but in various states of disrepair and dismantling.

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We will try to list all those homes claiming that wood.

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This model sits in the Frederick Co VA government building on Kent Street Winchester VA. Photo taken by Jim Moyer in 2018. About 30 or more years this model sat at the George Washington Office Museum on Cork and Braddock corner in Winchester VA.

PALISADE WALLS

 A  slight palisade wall of stakes

pointing vertically

were built later to hold

Revolutionary War prisoners. 

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There’s a model of that

palisade structure currently

In the Frederick Co govt bldg. 

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See link about that model.   

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A SPECIAL HESSIAN PRISONER

One Hessian prisoner

captured in Trenton

from the

”Christmas Night Crossing the Delaware attack” 

was taken to Fort Loudoun.

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He was allowed freedom to walk around town.

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He drew an awesome map of the town in 1777.  

See below.

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This shows 2 maps. The overlay was drawn by Wilbur S Johnston to show how accurate the Hessian prisoner was in drawing the original map.

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Notice Fort Loudoun on left on this map.

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Click on map to enlarge.

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Also see about Wilbur S Johnston who drew the overlay of the map.

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NOTES

for later research


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This statement has been repeated everywhere and is wrong.

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/01-02-02-0003-0002-0002

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Years after he became the the second president of the United States Adams remembered the trials:

“The Part I took in Defence of Cptn. Preston and the Soldiers, procured me Anxiety, and Obloquy enough. It was, however, one of the most gallant, generous, manly and disinterested Actions of my whole Life, and one of the best Pieces of Service I ever rendered my Country. Judgment of Death against those Soldiers would have been as foul a Stain upon this Country as the Executions of the Quakers or Witches, anciently. As the Evidence was, the Verdict of the Jury was exactly right.”   –John Adams

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Source:

The Boston Massacre Trials

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Or did he state this only 3 years after the event?

http://www.famous-trials.com/massacre/199-diaryentry

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https://

books.google.com/books?=V1PDCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT115&lpg=PT115&dq=%E2%80%9CThe+Part+I+took+in+Defence+of+Cptn.+Preston+and+the+Soldiers,+procured+me+Anxiety,+and+Obloquy+enough.+It+was,+however,+one+of+the+most+gallant,+generous,+manly+and+disinterested+Actions+of+my+whole+Life,+and+one+of+the+best+Pieces+of+Service+I+ever+rendered+my+Country.&source=bl&ots=l4dmF8aGtk&sig=t4IvFCIF5zTzE_6c98JRytijZyI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiMjpO92dvZAhVydt8KHZeMAR0Q6AEIkQEwEQ#v=onepage&q=%E2%80%9CThe%20Part%20I%20took%20in%20Defence%20of%20Cptn.%20Preston%20and%20the%20Soldiers%2C%20procured%20me%20Anxiety%2C%20and%20Obloquy%20enough.%20It%20was%2C%20however%2C%20one%20of%20the%20most%20gallant%2C%20generous%2C%20manly%20and%20disinterested%20Actions%20of%20my%20whole%20Life%2C%20and%20one%20of%20the%20best%20Pieces%20of%20Service%20I%20ever%20rendered%20my%20Country.&f=false

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Back to the Boston Massacre then.

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Read the trial, where John Adams presented evidence that this was a set up.

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The mob of 200  threw rocks and glass.  People behind the mob incited the British to “shoot, shoot”.  

One of the so-called heroes of that mob who incited these young 18 year old soldiers to do shoot was Attacks crispus …

 

 

 

With the righteous anger on memes and poster boards flying around on Facebook, we are no different from that mob in the Boston Massacre.   No different.  And this righteous anger?  Should we not be automatically suspicious of it by now?

So let’s look at this great American Tradition of hypocrisy of Righteous Anger.

But before we do,  

 

 

Thomas Hutchinson, then the chief justice of the highest court in Massachusetts—and no friend of the Stamp Act—had his Boston house gutted by an angry mob in August 1765. The mob more or less dismantled it brick by brick while his furniture and possessions were stolen or smashed in the streets. Hinderaker estimates $300,000 to $450,000 damage in today’s money.

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Paul Revere was The Bloody Massacre in King Street. In the early 1800’s it was also called the State Street Massacre.

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source :

http://www.bostonmassacre.net/index.html

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A Fair Account of the Late Unhappy Disturbance at Boston: In New England …

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https://books.google.com/books?id=bKtbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA3#v=onepage&q&f=false

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June 29, 1767 – the British Parliament Passes the Townshend Acts

The heavy presence of British troops in Boston that lead to the fatal shooting was the direct results of the Townshend Acts passed by British Parliament to impose additional taxes on common products imported into the Colonies. These products among others included paper, glass and tea.

October 1, 1768 – British Troops Start Arriving to Boston

On October 1, 1768 a group of British regulars arrived in Boston, MA to maintain order. The civilians reacted to the redcoats like they were invaders by taunting them through name calling, spitting, and fighting. The people of Boston had gained control of the reigns of power and prevented the soldiers from carrying out their duties. During the next eighteen months tension mounted between the two sides.

March 5, 1770 – The Boston Massacre Occurs

On March 5, 1770 the Twenty-Ninth Regiment came to the relief of the Eighth on duty at the Customs House on King (now State) Street. The soldiers, led by Captain Thomas Preston, were met by a large and taunting crowd of civilians. Captain Preston was unable to disperse the crowd and as they chanted “Fire and be damned” he ordered his troops “Don’t Fire!” With all the commotion the soldiers probably did not hear his orders and they opened fire on the crowd killing three men instantly and another two who died later.

October 24-30, 1770 – The Trial of Captain Preston

Seven months later, in October of 1770, Captain Preston was tried for murder in a Boston courtroom. He was defended by John Adams and Robert Auchmuty and assisted by Josiah Quincy Jr. Captain Preston was acquitted by a Boston jury. It was never satisfactory explained why the radicals Adams and Quincy represented Preston, and later the soldiers, although some surviving documents suggest that the jury in Preston’s case was “packed.” When the soldiers case came to trial soon after they were defended by Adams, Quincy, and Sampson Salter Blowers. The jurors in their case came from outside of Boston and they won acquittals a month after the trial began.

November 27 – Dec 14, 1770 – the Trial of the British Soldiers

The eight British soldiers accused of murder were tried separately from their officer Captain Preston. But just like the Preston’s trial the proceedings were delayed by 8 months after the incident to allow emotions to cool down. As a result of the trial, six soldiers were acquitted on the grounds of self-defense, but two were found guilty of murder because of the overpowering proof that they fired into the crowd.

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Source:

http://www.bostonmassacre.net/timeline.htm

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Another timeline source:

http://www.famous-trials.com/massacre/197-chronology

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another chronology

 

October 30, 1735

John Adams is born in Boston.

March 22, 1765

Enactment of the Stamp Act, imposing a tax on all printed materials. The Stamp Act proves highly unpopular in Massachusetts and other colonies.

March 18, 1766

The Stamp Act is repealed, but the same day the parliament passes the Declaratory Act asserting its right to bind the colonies by its laws.

1767

The Townshend Revenue Act of 1767 authorizes the use of writs in order to locate goods subject to custom duties. The Act is detested by many Bostonians.

May 9, 1768

John Hancock’s sloop Liberty arrives in Boston with a cargo of wine. A customs official is temporarily held hostage as the wine is unloaded without payment of the required custom duties.e Liberty is seized.

June 10, 1768

Based on a report of the May 9 customs violation and rough treatment of a customs official, the Liberty is seized. Rioters attack customs officials.

Sept. 28, 1768

Two regiments of British regulars land in Boston to deal with growing unrest. They are quartered in various public places throughout the city.

1769

Francis Bernard resigns as Governor of Massachusetts Province. He is replaced by Acting Governor Thomas Hutchinson.

March 2, 1770

Civilians and British soldiers clash at John Gray’s Ropewalk in the Fort Hill section of Boston. One of the soldiers involved in the fighting is Matthew Killroy, later convicted of manslaughter in the Boston Massacre trial.

March 5, 1770

A crowd of Bostonians begins throwing chunks of ice, oyster shells, piece of coal and other objects at a British guard near the Custom House. Captain Thomas Preston orders the main guard out to protect the sentry and restore order. After a soldier is hit with a stick, he yells “fire!” and shoots into the crowd. Other shots follow. When the shooting stops, five civilians lay mortally wounded. The incident becomes known as “the Boston Massacre.”

March 6, 1770

Captain Preston is arrested, interrogated, and sent to jail. Lt. Governor Hutchinson calls for calm. A group of angry citizens gather in Faneuil Hall, where they call for the immediate removal of all British troops. John Adams and Josiah Quincy agree to defend Preston and the soldiers.

March 8, 1770

The first four victims of the massacre are buried in the Granary Burying Ground. All shops are closed. Church bells ring throughout the city of Boston.

March 12, 1770

Captain Preston offers his views of the events of March 5 in a deposition.

March 13, 1770

A grand jury indicts Captain Preston and eight soldiers are indicted for murder in connection with the massacre.

March 16, 1770

A frigate carrying reports and letters of Hutchinson relating the events of March 5  leaves Boston bound for England.

March 17, 1770

The fifth and last victim of the massacre, Patrick Carr, is buried in the Granary Burying Ground.

April 1770

Advice from London concerning the handling of prosecutions for deaths and injuries resulting from the March 5 shootings reaches Hutchinson.

April 28, 1770

Preston’s account of events, and complaints about the Boston public, are published in the London paper, Public Advertiser.

June 21-25, 1770

Captain Preston’s London letter, much to his dismay, is published in Boston papers, turning public sentiment against him.

July 1770

Copies of A Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre in Boston begin circulating in Boston. The narrative is seen as an attempt to influence potential jurors in the upcoming trials.

Sept. 7, 1770

Preston and the soldiers are formally arraigned on charges of murder. All plead “Not Guilty.”

Oct. 21, 1770

The eight soldiers appeal from jail to be tried along with their captain. Their request is denied.

Oct. 24-30, 1770

Captain Preston is tried. A jury acquits Preston after the evidence fails to establish that he gave the order to fire.

Nov. 27, 1770

The trial of the eight soldiers begins.

Dec. 5, 1770

Six of the soldiers are acquitted on all charges. Two soldiers, Montgomery and Killroy are convicted of manslaugter.

Dec. 14, 1770

Montgomery and Killroy plead “the benefit of clergy” to reduce their punishment to branding. Sheriff Greenleaf brands the two men on their right thumbs.

Late Dec., 1770

Captain Preston sails for England. He receives 200 pounds in compensation for his troubles relating to the Boston Massacre.

Dec. 16, 1773

In a act of protest against the Tea Act of 1773, a gang of men with blackened faces board three ships and dump their cargo of tea into Boston harbor. The Boston Tea Party leads to the Port Act, closing the port of Boston to all commerce, and to the quartering of troops in Boston.

March 5, 1774

On the forth anniversary of the Boston Massacre, John Hancock delivers an eloquent and spirited oration to a large crowd.

Sept. 5, 1774

With the spirit of independence rising, the first Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia.

April 19, 1775

Paul Revere makes his famous midnight ride to warn citizens of the arrival of British troops. The American Revolution is about to begin.

1887

The General Court of Massachusetts votes to erect a monument honoring the victims of the Boston Massacre. The Massachusetts Historical Society expresses its disapproval.

http://www.famous-trials.com/massacre/197-chronology

 

 

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Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence.

https://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2010/03/31/frustrating_stubborn_facts_104987.html

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Post scheduled for Sunday 6/24/2018

Facebook Wants to Use Machine Learning to Stop Hoaxes and Fake News .

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How would Facebook’s AI (artificial intelligence) verify the truth of claims made in the Boston Massacre?

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And would it have several findings of fact?

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Would Facebook keep its explanation so brief that the truth is still distorted?

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Source

http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/facebook-wants-to-use-machine-learning-to-stop-hoaxes-and-fake-news/ar-AAyYsyS?ocid=ientp

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