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Sep
25

CALENDAR CHANGE JULIAN TO GREGORIAN

By
When:
January 1, 2016 – January 9, 2016 all-day
2016-01-01T00:00:00-05:00
2016-01-10T00:00:00-05:00

CALENDAR CHANGE: JULIAN TO GREGORIAN

Compiled by Jim Moyer, 9/25/2015, 2/29/2016, 12/27-28/2016

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Something’s Not Right

February 29, is the clue –

a day that tells you

all is not normal.

All is not neatly synchronized.

The planets and the star system are just a little off.

But you knew that already.

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Even back then “they” knew it.

The holidays weren’t falling on the right time of the season.

And the world was getting connected,

and smaller – even back then.

World wide commerce made everyone familiar

with what their neighbor was doing.

And other countries had the more modern calendar.

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From basing time on all these motions, to these peturbations, to the metronome of atoms, to cesium, vigilance is required to keep time in check, even back to the 1750s, even back to 1582.

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TWO SHORT YEARS

The British Calendar Act of 1750 created 2 short years:

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1751 – because of changing beginning of year

1752 – because of changing from Julian to Gregorian

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Gregorian Calendar was established in 1582

and adopted by many countries years before  England did.

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First,  beginning  of year changed:

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calendar-25-march-1751

MARCH 25, 1751 was the old beginning of the year.

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JANUARY 1, 1752  is now the new beginning of the year.

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In England and Wales: 1751 was short  – 282 days.

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Scotland was using  JANUARY 1

as  its first of the year since 1600.

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Secondly, add ELEVEN days

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calendar-1752

Wednesday 2 September 1752

was followed by

Thursday 14 September 1752.

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So, 1752  was short  too – 355 days.

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Scotland joined England and Wales implementing this 11 day change.

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Third, consider Leap Years:

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There was a February 29, 1752.

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Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year,

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except for years that are exactly divisible by 100,

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but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400.

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For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

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calendar-1582This was brought to you by the

Gregorian Calendar: Named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced the fix of advancing the calendar 10 days in October 1582.

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The Protestant countries adopted later this Catholic calendar.

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England and Wales passed the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 changing from the Julian to Gregorian calendar over a two year period in two steps.

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calendar-julian-to-gregorian

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The Gregorian Calendar has an error of about one day per 3,030 years.

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The Julian Calendar has an error of 1 day in 128 years.

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Table found in this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregorian_calendar#cite_ref-27

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We’re NOT DONE Yet

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washington-horseback-oct-31-1753

A 16 year old George Washington wrote this date:

 – Fryday the 11th. of March 1747/8.   Confusing?

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That’s because the new year started on March 25 in England.

Other nations  switched to January 1 long before England did.

(OS) old style year and (NS) new style year.

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[Picture from Emerson’s Magazine and Putnam’s Monthly, 1857. vol.5. page 561]

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The months of January, February, and part of March before 1752 would cause confusion on what year it was.

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To avoid confusion many colonial records used dates providing both the official and common year. A typical example is “5 Feb 1750/51”

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After March 25 you would not see the double year date.

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From link

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/January_1  :

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In England, January 1 was celebrated as the New Year festival, but from the 12th century to 1752 the year in England began on March 25 (Lady Day).

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So, for example, the Parliamentary record notes the execution of Charles I as occurring on January 30, 1648, (as the year did not end until March 24), although modern histories adjust the start of the year to January 1 and record the execution as occurring in 1649.

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The official beginning of the year changed  to January 1 in  1752.

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SOURCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregorian_calendar

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calendar_(New_Style)_Act_1750

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates

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Actual text of the 1750 legislation:

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/apgb/Geo2/24/23/contents

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British Calendar Act of 1750

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The Quaker Calendar during this transition:

http://www.swarthmore.edu/friends-historical-library/quaker-calendar

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Why is January 1 New Year’s Day?

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Why not the Winter Solstice, with the return of light, as the days grow longer?

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Why not the Vernal Equinox, being Spring, the return of life?

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Text from this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Year%27s_Day

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Calendars from this link:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_calendar

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calendar-of-romulus

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The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the new year.

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The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March.

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That the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months.

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September through December, our ninth through twelfth months, were originally positioned as the seventh through tenth months (septem is Latin for “seven,” octo is “eight,” novem is “nine,” and decem is “ten.”)

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calendar-of-numa

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The first time the new year was celebrated on January 1 was in Rome in 153 BC (In fact, the month of January did not even exist until around 700 BC, when the second king of Rome, Numa Pontilius, added the months of January and February.)

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The new year was moved from March to January because that was the beginning of the civil year, the month that the two newly elected Roman consuls – the highest officials in the Roman republic – began their one-year tenure.

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But this new year date was not always strictly and widely observed, and the new year was still sometimes celebrated on March 1.

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For more, see:

http://www.webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-roman.html#anchor-what

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The Atomic Clock

Everyone who grew up with short wave radio has run into this sound.

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The Atomic Clock will compare itself to the ALL the speeds of the

rotating earth, the moon, the solar system and see how over time

this affects the build up of error in our calendars.

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LEAP SECOND

As midnight approaches, the official atomic clocks that keep Universal Coordinated Time will mark the time as 23h 59m 59s, followed by the leap second 23h 59m 60s.

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Jan 1. 2017 will continue as usual, beginning with 0h 0m 0s.

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Source:

http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-leap-second-20161230-story.html

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