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Nov
01

Captain Tom Step Nottoway ally

By
When:
May 13, 2016 all-day
2016-05-13T00:00:00-04:00
2016-05-14T00:00:00-04:00
Where:
"1840 Courthouse" Winchester VA
Winchester
VA 22601
USA
Cost:
Free

 

Captain Tom Step Nottoway ally

Captain Tom came to Winchester and scoured the woods for the enemy Indians and escorted supply trains.

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TIMELINE

When Captain Tom came to Winchester and scoured the woods for the enemy Indians and escorted supply trains.

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May 13, 1756

Paid John Greenfield for moccasins for Nottoway Indians

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Source:

Page 36 of George Washington and Winchester Virginia 1748 to 1758 by Garland Quarles, Volume VIII of Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society Papers

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May 29, 1756

2 Skirmishes, Mutiny or Disagreement and KIA

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To George Washington from Adam Stephen  at Cumberland [Md.] May 29th 1756

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Sir,

You have no doubt heard of the Party of Volunters who went out under command of Colo. Cressop;1

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He returned about noon with about 60 of them & Six of the Nottawaies—About bare Camp,2

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 [See Jim Moyer’s Frontier Forts Google Maps on Braddock’s Camp 6, Bear Camp]

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his men mutinied, Some were for one thing and some for another—

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Lt Gist went from this place with him,

with Eighteen men of the Regimt

and Seven Indians—

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In Compliance with the mutinous tempers

of the men rather than

with any reasonable view t

hey divided their men—

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Mr Cressop with the men

under his Command

Set off to fall in upon Y—Youghgane

above the G. Crossing,

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whilst Lt Gist marchd with the Soldiers, Indian Capt. Tom,3  

& Sixteen Volunteers Straight to it,

and about a Quarter of a mile

above the Spring

on the Top of the mountains

fell in with a party of the Enemy.

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The Skirmish lasted near an hour,

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The Enemy behaved

with great Resolution

and constantly aim’d at

Surrounding our men,

who on their part

behavd extreamly well,

prevented the Enemies designs and,

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According to our Acct,

killed Six of them,

with the loss of two of themselves—

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There are only two of the men

who were in that engagemt

come in yet.

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They overtook Mr Cressop

on his Return,

with the numr abov[e] mentd,

instead of marching for the River,

which I am afraid

will lead Mr Gist into a mistaske—

In their Return they fell in with three or four Indians,4

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one of Whom they Scalpd, &

wounded two more mortally,

but his Men were in such a pannick

that he could not prevail

on them to Stay and look for them.

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The Enemy

with whom Liut. Gist fell in

were on thier way down—

I have not heard thier number—

They may be the advanced guard

of an Army for what I know.

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The Serjt who is come in,

Says that they left the field,

upon hearing a gun fird at a distance,

and a great hollowing

coming from the Crossing.5

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I am anxious about Mr Gist

and the men under his Command.6

I hope you will Send us up

Some of the Recruits

as soon as possible

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I am Sir, Your most Obt huble Sert

Adam Stephen

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Founders Online footnotes:

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  1. 1. Thomas Cresap (1694–1790) was a prominent Maryland frontiersman and land speculator. His fortified trading post was at Old Town, east of Fort Cumberland, but since the Indian raids began he had retreated to the comparative safety of the Conococheague settlement. For further identification of Cresap, see Robert Dinwiddie to GW, 15 Mar. 1754, n.2.

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  1. 2. Bear Camp was 21 miles beyond Fort Cumberland on the road to Fort Duquesne, and only 8 miles before the Great Crossing of the Youghiogheny. 

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  1.  On these 2 maps,

  2. If Laptop, select icon, Side Bar appears on left

  3. If Mobile, select icon, Side appears on bottom

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  1. [See Jim Moyer’s Frontier Forts Google Maps on Braddock’s Camp 6, Bear Camp]

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  1.  [See Jim Moyer’s Frontier Forts Google Maps on  the Great Crossing of the Youghiogheny ]

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  1. 3. Captain Tom[Step] was a warrior of the Nottoway tribe.

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  1. 4. At the end of the first page of his letter Stephen wrote “about” after “Indians,” and he began the second page repetitively: “the[y] fell in with three or four Indians.”

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  1. 5. Col. Thomas Cresap’s volunteers, who were known as “Red Caps” and usually wore Indian garb, left Fort Cumberland on 24 May [1756] in pursuit of the French and Indians who had been ravaging the Conococheague settlement and had recently killed Cresap’s eldest son, Thomas Cresap, Jr.

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  1.  Follow up Question: what date what young Cresap killed?

  2. Apparently the Indians who killed young Cresap were the same party who a few days earlier attacked and killed Capt. John Fenton Mercer. See William Stark to GW, 18 April 1756.

  3. .
  4.  Follow up Question —- For above Founders Online Footnote, How is that claim made?  How do we know the same Indians who killed young Cresap are the same who kill John Fenton Mercer?

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  1. In a long letter printed in the Maryland Gazette (Annapolis), 17 June 1756, Colonel Cresap defended his actions. He blamed Nathaniel Gist for letting himself be persuaded by “some young Headstrong Men, unexperienced in War,” to divide the command.

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  1. Gist continued with part of the men toward Great Meadows by way of the Great Crossing of Youghiogheny, and Cresap led his men “by Way of the Glades up Yoghiogain.” Cresap claimed his party encountered only three Indians, two of whom they shot, while Gist’s party “had a smart Engagement with a Party of French and Indians about three Miles from where they parted with us, and had lost several Men, with all the Baggage and Provisions.”

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  2. 6. Nathaniel Gist brought his party off with the loss of only four men.

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Source:

http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-03-02-0182

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August 1, 1756

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Speech to the Tuscarora Indians by  Colonel George Washington

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[Winchester, 1 August 1756]

To King Blunt, Capt. Jack, and the rest of the Tuscorora Chiefs—Brothers, & Friends,1

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This will be Deliverd you by our

Brother Tom, a Warrior of the Nottoways,

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who with others of that Nation,

have distinguished themselves i

n our service this summer,

against our

Cruel and perfidious Enemys2

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The intent of this, is,

to Assure you of our

real Friendship and Love—

and to confirm & Strengthen

that chain of Friendship,

which has subsisted

between us for so many ages past,

a Chain like ours,

founded on Sincere Love,

and Friendship,

must be strong and lasting,

and will I hope endure

while Sun & Stars give Light.

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Founders Online footnotes:

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  1. 1. Until their devastating war with the white Carolinians in 1711–13 the Tuscarora Indians were a populous tribe living in eastern North Carolina. Many of the survivors of that war went north as far as New York, and in 1722 the Tuscarora became one of the Six Nations. Those remaining in North Carolina were headed by Tom Blount (Blunt). Captain Jack seems to have been second in power to the aging Blount. It was to this Carolina remnant that GW’s speech was addressed. For his comments on the speech, see GW to Dinwiddie, 4 Aug. 1756.

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  1. 2. Brother Tom was probably the Captain Tom who was mentioned in Adam Stephen’s letter to GW of 29 May 1756. The Nottoway Indians, Iroquoian like the Tuscarora, were a small tribe living in southeastern Virginia, not far from the Tuscarora. A party of the Nottoway Indians had come up first to Winchester probably in early May [1756] and then on to Fort Cumberland in mid-May [1756].

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http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-03-02-0283

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August 10, 1756

Paid Nottoway Indians for their expenses homeward.

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Source:

Page 37 of George Washington and Winchester Virginia 1748 to 1758 by Garland Quarles, Volume VIII of Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society Papers

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July 20, 1758

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Winchester July the 20th 1758

To George Washington from Christopher Gist, 20 July 1758

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here with you have the agreeable News of taking all the Out works at Lewisburg your Papers will come by the Command &

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as the Carolina Soldiers had no Arms I Sent Capt[ain] Tom with 25 Indians as far as South branch who is to come back to this town, from ther; as no doubt you will Send a Guard to South Branch, to take Care of these 50 Waggons with Stores & Provisions & as your waggons will come again the Same Indians will come then with Me.1

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I have advices from the Cherokee Country that the Indians will not come untill the heat is a Little over, I Sent Smith away the 14th the express Met him at augusta[.]2 I order’d Mr Cromwell with him who will Delay no time, they cannot be here in less then forty days from this day, I b[e]lieve it is a good thing Smith is gone there as he will Set every thing right.3

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I have a Letter from Mr Turner to General Forbes, which I am going with My Self.4 he is at Carlyle the waggons is at Parrises5 the Bearer will Set Out at 10 oClock hope you will See him tomorrow let him come with the next command or Sooner excuse hast Sir Yr Most Obedt Hume Servt

Christr Gist

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Founders Online footnotes:

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  1. 1. The original plan was for the detachment of North Carolina provincials at Winchester to conduct Thomas Walker’s second convoy of wagons up to Fort Cumberland (see GW to Hugh Waddell, 24 June), but evidently the Tuscarora leader Captain Tom and his little band of Tuscarora and Nottoway had to help escort both the unarmed Carolinians and the wagon train as far as the South Branch.

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  2. 2. The express, or messenger, who met Richard Smith probably was the man who brought George Turner’s letters to Winchester reporting that no more Cherokee would come to Virginia before fall. In his letter to William Byrd, Turner identified the carrier of his letters as “James Holmes, who is a Master of Pack Horses.” See note 4.

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  3. 4. William Byrd left George Turner in the Cherokee country in early May with instructions to conduct Little Carpenter and his party up to Winchester. On 23 June Turner wrote both Byrd and Forbes that Little Carpenter and his followers had backed out of their agreement to go to Virginia. Turner gave Byrd a detailed account of his fruitless negotiations with Little Carpenter, but his report to Forbes was succinct: “to the Very Day that I was to have set off, I had no Reason to doubt my Success (the Eve before excepted) when they trump’d up a Story of their Conjurers foretelling them a great deal of Sickness & Death that wou’d attend them in case they Went & they positively refus’d to go till the Fall” (ViU: Forbes Papers).

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  4. 5. Gist is probably referring to Robert Pearis’s house a short distance north and west of Winchester. Pearis at this time was a captain in the Frederick County militia.

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Source:

http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-05-02-0249

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Notes to organize for later


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Source:

http://www.history.org/almanack/people/bios/biostep.cfm

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Captain Tom Step

tribal emissariesWilliamsburg saw many tribal emissaries in the 18th century.

  • Nottoway Indian
  • Multi-lingual in European and Native languages
  • Literate
  • Fought for Virginia during the French & Indian War

Childhood

Born in Isle of Wight County c.1725, Tom Step was raised in an Iroquoian-speaking community on the colonial frontier. During the first half of the 18th century, the Nottoway Indians had two towns south of the Blackwater River, the larger one situated along Assamoosick Swamp in present-day Southampton County, Virginia.

During Step’s youth, the Nottoway Great Town was fortified and served as a trading center for Euro-Indian commerce and as a military rally point for colonial rangers. Land speculators, surveyors, Indian traders, and planters were some of the frequent colonial visitors to the Native villages.

Tom Step grew up during a period of change for Nottoway people: he learned to use the bow and arrow alongside firearms; his grandparent’s clothing of buckskin was replaced with that of manufactured cloth; the deer he hunted became more valuable for the skin trade than as a food source. The introduction of alcohol, domesticated animals, slave labor and ideas of property division drastically altered the cultural landscape surrounding Tom Step’s natal community.

The Brafferton Indian School at the College of William & Mary

The Nottoway were tributary to the English Crown, via the Virginia governor, since the 1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation. Visits to Jamestown, and later Williamsburg, were commonplace. The Nottoway paid a quit rent of three arrows and a tribute of twenty beaver skins to the governor at his residence in March of each year.

By Tom Step’s time, the Nottoway annual tribute was suspended in favor of sending Nottoway youth to the Brafferton Indian School at the College of William & Mary. It is likely that Step attended the school founded for the “Western Indians” education in “good letters and manners, and… the Christian faith.” Later records indicate Step was literate and spoke two or three Indian languages, as well as English.

During the early 1750s Tom Step, “one of the chief men,” is referenced in several Nottoway deeds and the Journal of the House of Burgesses. His contemporary headmen were also students of the College and frequenters of Williamsburg. Iroquoians Alexander and Robert Scholar most likely took their surname from the title given to the colonial students of William & Mary, “Scholars.” Nottoway students, like Tom Step and the Scholars, continued to attend the Brafferton School until its closing in the 1770s.

Captain Tom StepCaptain Tom Step led war parties in the French and Indian War.

Diplomat and War Captain

Native diplomacy and tribal emissaries in Williamsburg were constant during the eighteenth century. The Nottoway signed several treaties in the colonial capital and were present for dozens of exchanges between Virginia and the Northern Iroquoians, Cherokee, Catawba and their Siouan-speaking allies. In one instance, Tom Step and other Nottoway headmen lead a treaty delegation to confront Cherokee ambassadors in Williamsburg. The August 16th, 1751 edition of the Virginia Gazette recounts the Nottoway-Cherokee heated discourse, wampum presentation, and ceremonial pipe smoking on the steps of Williamsburg’s courthouse. The peace bonds that Step and other Nottoway made with the Cherokee encouraged their later united participation in the French & Indian War.

As allies to the British Crown, Tom Step led the Nottoway to Williamsburg “to renew their ancient League with their brothers the Cherokees, which was done in the Market Place, by smoking the Pipe, &c. after which the Cherokee Warrior made a long speech, desiring the Nottoways to go immediately to the Assistance of their Brothers the English.” In April of 1756, Step and fifteen other Nottoway joined the Cherokee warriors, following Isle of Wight’s Lt. James Baker to assist Lt. Colonel George Washington in Winchester.

During the War, Tom Step was referred to as “Captain Tom,” leading war parties against the French and their Indian allies in the disputed territory of western Pennsylvania and Maryland. The summer of 1756 was particularly difficult on the forward garrisons – supplies and dwindling recruitments left much to be desired.

Lt. Governor Robert Dinwiddie and Lt. Colonel Washington encouraged the Cherokee, Catawba, and Tuscarora to join Virginia and the Nottoway against the French; Washington believed their service was worth “more than twice their number of white men” in the woodland warfare of the frontier. In August, Washington sent Capt. Tom Step with wampum and a speech to formally invite the Tuscarora and other tributary Indians to join the Virginia ranks. Capt. Tom persevered, recruiting upwards of seventy Nottoway, Tuscarora, and Meherrin warriors.

Eventually joined by Catawba and more Cherokee, Step and the Nottoway fought “against the French, faithfully and honestly, until the reduction of Fort Du Quesne…and did behave themselves with great Bravery during the…campaign…” Near the conclusion of the hostilities, Washington and the House of Burgesses singled out “Tom Step, who distinguished himself very remarkably in the Action…” The House ordered “…that the Treasurer be desired to purchase a Silver Gorget and suit of Clothes, [to] be presented to Captain Thomas Step, one of the Nottoway Indians, as a mark of distinction, and as reward for his brave and gallant behavior during the last campaign.”

Later Years

Thomas Step continued to be a primary figure in Nottoway politics and commerce, appearing in the colonial capital with land sale petitions and arguing for Nottoway monetary compensation for wartime service. He possibly fought alongside Virginians and the Tuscarora in the Cherokee War of the early 1760s. Step’s leadership may have also influenced Tuscarora reservation land sales and leases in North Carolina. A number of Nottoway, Meherrin, and Tuscarora removed from Virginia – Carolina in the mid 1760s – the body taking residence in New York among their Iroquois brethren.

Doubtless, the connections made during the late northern war rekindled kinship ties with the Six Nations. A portion of the communities remained in Virginia, but became increasingly politically isolated and marginalized. Nottoway connections with Williamsburg declined after the Indian school closed in 1777 and the capital moved to Richmond in 1780. Capt. Tom’s descendants and relatives continued in Southampton County, where the Step surname survived among the Nottoway well into the 19th century.

Learn more:

 


 

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The exhibit also contains a letter written by George Washington to Tuscarora chiefs during the French and Indian War, delivered by liaison Thomas Step, a former Brafferton student, of the Nottoway Tribe — “that tells us he was trusted by Washington. He was literate, he can read it and translate it into Iroquois,” Woodard said.

 

 

These were students like Charles Murphy, who became a Cherokee interpreter for Patrick Henry, and Robert Mush, who would go on to fight in the Revolutionary War.

 

Though the curators chose to feature four native communities in the exhibit — Cherokee, Nottoway, Pamunkey and Wyandot—dozens more have ties to the Brafferton.

 

Twenty five names line the upper perimeter of the gallery.

John Nettles, John Montour, Henry Bawbee, Thomas Step, Charles Murphy, George Sampson, to name a few.

 

 

In the first of three galleries, focused on the Brafferton’s founding, the timeline actually ends with William and Mary’s 1693 charter, stating “that the Christian faith may be propagated amongst the Western Indians, to the glory of Almighty God.” This first gallery aims more to provide context, examining earlier British attempts at creating schools “to win the hearts and minds” of native populations, Woodard said.

 

 

Revenue

The exhibit’s second and main gallery, lined with the 25 names, illuminates interesting aspects of the Brafferton’s funding. For one, a never-before-shown parchment drawing from 1771 of the Brafferton Estate in Yorkshire, England, traces the tracts of land whose rent monies funded the college, and thus, the Brafferton. The college also received funds from taxation of many commodities exported from Virginia, goods largely tied to native communities

 

 

Exhibit info

The exhibit opened at the Muscarelle in September, on display until January, and the museum will host a day-long symposium related to the exhibit on Thursday, Nov. 3. Free and open to the public, “Reflections on Virginia’s Colonial Indian School: The Brafferton at the College of William and Mary” features a series of short lectures from the curators, college faculty and students, Colonial Williamsburg staff and more.

 

 

Moretti-Langholtz and co-curator Buck Woodard, director of Colonial Williamsburg’s American Indian Initiative, wanted to uncover the full story. Ten years of research on both sides of the Atlantic and two years of planning culminated in “Building the Brafferton: The Founding, Funding and Legacy of America’s Indian School.”

 

Muscarelle Museum’s “Building the Brafferton

 

http://www.vagazette.com/life/va-vg-brafferton-1029-20161029-story.html

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Remembering the story of William and Mary’s Brafferton Indian School

www.vagazette.com

Twenty five names line the upper perimeter of the gallery.

 

 

TOM STEP

6/17/2005

1735 to 1808 Southampton Co., VA Indians

Listed as Nottoway and Nansemond Indians on land deeds in Southampton, Virginia:

1735……………….King Edmunds, James Harrison, Ned, Peter, Robert Scoller Sam, Wanoke Robin, William Hines, Frank, Wanoke Robin Jr. Cockarons Tom, Cockarons Will.

1750……………….Sam, Frank, Jack Will, John Turner, Wat Bailey, George Skipper

1795……………….John Turner, Celia Rogers (a Nansemond), Suky Turner

1808 Special Census on Nottoway in Southampton:

adults: Litteton Scholar, Tom Turner, Jemmy Wineoak, Edy Turner, Nancy Turner, Betsy Step

Children: Tom Step, Henry Turner, Alexander Rogers, John Woodson, Winny Woodson, Anny Woodson, Polly Woodson, Fanny Bartlett, Solomon Bartlett, Billy Woodson,   Jenny Woodson

http://sciway3.net/clark/freemoors/Indian.htm

 

 

 

CAPTAIN TOM STEP  NOTTOWAY

 

http://makinghistorynow.com/2010/09/tom-step-nottoway-indian-diplomat/

 

BIO

http://www.history.org/almanack/people/bios/biostep.cfm

 

 

mercer  6 september 1759 in Winchester writes to gw about Waggener

 

http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-06-02-0186

 

 

https://nativeheritageproject.com/2013/07/12/1756-dinwiddie-letter-to-george-washington/

 

 

The people of this “Nottoway Tribe“, now numbering between 400 and 500, call themselves Cheroenhaka, meaning “People At The Fork Of The Stream”.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nottoway_County,_Virginia

 

 

1808 Nottoway Indian Census

Tom Step, 18 years old. Sometimes hires himself out as a day labourer, but mostly idle.

Betsy Step, 36 years old. Spinning, generally.

Betsy Step (and her son Tom when at home) compose her family

http://www.freeafricanamericans.com/Nottoway.htm

 

 

 

GEORGE MERCER

Died while undergoing mental treatment

 

Loyal servant to his last days

In later life, Mercer received various disbursements from the British government, including a pension that supported him first in Paris and later in London. Mercer, a loyal servant to the crown, died in London in 1784 while undergoing treatment for mental illness.

 

http://www.history.org/almanack/people/bios/biomer.cfm

 

 

Native diplomacy and tribal emissaries in Williamsburg were constant during the eighteenth century. The Nottoway signed several treaties in the colonial capital and were present for dozens of exchanges between Virginia and the Northern Iroquoians, Cherokee, Catawba and their Siouan-speaking allies. In one instance, Tom Step and other Nottoway headmen lead a treaty delegation to confront Cherokee ambassadors in Williamsburg. The August 16th, 1751 edition of the Virginia Gazette recounts the Nottoway-Cherokee heated discourse, wampum presentation, and ceremonial pipe smoking on the steps of Williamsburg’s courthouse. The peace bonds that Step and other Nottoway made with the Cherokee encouraged their later united participation in the French & Indian War.
As allies to the British Crown, Tom Step led the Nottoway to Williamsburg “to renew their ancient League with their brothers the Cherokees, which was done in the Market Place, by smoking the Pipe, &c. after which the Cherokee Warrior made a long speech, desiring the Nottoways to go immediately to the Assistance of their Brothers the English.” In April of 1756, Step and fifteen other Nottoway joined the Cherokee warriors, following Isle of Wight’s Lt. James Baker to assist Lt. Colonel George Washington in Winchester. During the War, Tom Step was referred to as “Captain Tom,” leading war parties against the French and their Indian allies in the disputed territory of western Pennsylvania and Maryland. The summer of 1756 was particularly difficult on the forward garrisons – supplies and dwindling recruitments left much to be desired.
Lt. Governor Robert Dinwiddie and Lt. Colonel Washington encouraged the Cherokee, Catawba, and Tuscarora to join Virginia and the Nottoway against the French; Washington believed their service was worth “more than twice their number of white men” in the woodland warfare of the frontier. In August, Washington sent Capt. Tom Step with wampum and a speech to formally invite the Tuscarora and other tributary Indians to join the Virginia ranks. Capt. Tom persevered, recruiting upwards of seventy Nottoway, Tuscarora, and Meherrin warriors.
Eventually joined by Catawba and more Cherokee, Step and the Nottoway fought “against the French, faithfully and honestly, until the reduction of Fort Du Quesne…and did behave themselves with great Bravery during the…campaign…” Near the conclusion of the hostilities, Washington and the House of Burgesses singled out “Tom Step, who distinguished himself very remarkably in the Action…” The House ordered “…that the Treasurer be desired to purchase a Silver Gorget and suit of Clothes, [to] be presented to Captain Thomas Step, one of the Nottoway Indians, as a mark of distinction, and as reward for his brave and gallant behavior during the last campaign.”

Thomas Step continued to be a primary figure in Nottoway politics and commerce, appearing in the colonial capital with land sale petitions and arguing for Nottoway monetary compensation for wartime service. He possibly fought alongside Virginians and the Tuscarora in the Cherokee War of the early 1760s. Step’s leadership may have also influenced Tuscarora reservation land sales and leases in North Carolina. A number of Nottoway, Meherrin, and Tuscarora removed from Virginia – Carolina in the mid 1760s – the body taking residence in New York among their Iroquois brethren.

Doubtless, the connections made during the late northern war rekindled kinship ties with the Six Nations. A portion of the communities remained in Virginia, but became increasingly politically isolated and marginalized. Nottoway connections with Williamsburg declined after the Indian school closed in 1777 and the capital moved to Richmond in 1780. Capt. Tom’s descendants and relatives continued in Southampton County, where the Step surname survived among the Nottoway well into the 19th century.

Learn more:

http://www.history.org/almanack/people/bios/biostep.cfm

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 From Christopher Gist

Winchester July the 20th 1758

Sir

here with you have the agreeable News of taking all the Out works at Lewisburg your Papers will come by the Command & as the Carolina Soldiers had no Arms I Sent Capt[ain] Tom with 25 Indians as far as South branch who is to come back to this town, from ther; as no doubt you will Send a Guard to South Branch, to take Care of these 50 Waggons with Stores & Provisions & as your waggons will come again the Same Indians will come then with Me.1 I have advices from the Cherokee Country that the Indians will not come untill the heat is a Little over, I Sent Smith away the 14th the express Met him at augusta[.]2 I order’d Mr Cromwell with him who will Delay no time, they cannot be here in less then forty days from this day, I b[e]lieve it is a good thing Smith is gone there as he will Set every thing right.3

I have a Letter from Mr Turner to General Forbes, which I am going with My Self.4 he is at Carlyle the waggons is at Parrises5 the Bearer will Set Out at 10 oClock hope you will See him tomorrow let him come with the next command or Sooner excuse hast Sir Yr Most Obedt Hume Servt

Christr Gist

ALS, DLC:GW.

  1. 1. The original plan was for the detachment of North Carolina provincials at Winchester to conduct Thomas Walker’s second convoy of wagons up to Fort Cumberland (see GW to Hugh Waddell, 24 June), but evidently the Tuscarora leader Captain Tom and his little band of Tuscarora and Nottoway had to help escort both the unarmed Carolinians and the wagon train as far as the South Branch.
  2. 2. The express, or messenger, who met Richard Smith probably was the man who brought George Turner’s letters to Winchester reporting that no more Cherokee would come to Virginia before fall. In his letter to William Byrd, Turner identified the carrier of his letters as “James Holmes, who is a Master of Pack Horses.” See note 4.
  3. 3. Whether or not it was the result of the mission to the Cherokee country of Richard Smith, the Indian interpreter, and of Gist’s son-in-law William Cromwell, an Indian conductor and courier, the fact is that Little Carpenter and a small party of Cherokee did finally come to Winchester in October. Commenting on an earlier report from Gist that Little Carpenter and his men had already arrived in Augusta County en route to Winchester (see Forbes to Bouquet, 6 July, in Stevens, Bouquet Papers description begins Donald H. Kent et al., eds. The Papers of Henry Bouquet. 6 vols. Harrisburg, Pa., 1951-94. description ends , 2:163–65), Abraham Bosomworth wrote Bouquet on 14 July that he had found that there “are no Catawbas at Winchester nor any accounts of the little Carpenter, Mr Gist being too premature (as he generally is) in his Intelligence” (ibid., 204–5).
  4. 4. William Byrd left George Turner in the Cherokee country in early May with instructions to conduct Little Carpenter and his party up to Winchester. On 23 June Turner wrote both Byrd and Forbes that Little Carpenter and his followers had backed out of their agreement to go to Virginia. Turner gave Byrd a detailed account of his fruitless negotiations with Little Carpenter, but his report to Forbes was succinct: “to the Very Day that I was to have set off, I had no Reason to doubt my Success (the Eve before excepted) when they trump’d up a Story of their Conjurers foretelling them a great deal of Sickness & Death that wou’d attend them in case they Went & they positively refus’d to go till the Fall” (ViU: Forbes Papers).
  5. 5. Gist is probably referring to Robert Pearis’s house a short distance north and west of Winchester. Pearis at this time was a captain in the Frederick County militia.

Index Entries

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http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-05-02-0249

Note: The annotations to this document, and any other modern editorial content, are copyright © The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. All rights reserved.

 

http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-05-02-0249

 

north Carolina soldiers to Forbes

 

http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-05-02-0183

 

 

  1. 1. For a discussion of the arrival of three companies of North Carolina provincials to join Forbes’s expedition, see Clair to GW, 22 June, n.3.

 

 

To Hugh Waddell

[Fort Loudoun, 24 June 1758]

To the Officer Commanding a Detachment from No. Carolina. Sir

last night the Inclosd March Rout came under cover to me for you, with this Paragraph from Sir Jno. St Clair—“I have inclosd you a march Rout for a hundred of the No. Carolina Provincials, that ought to be at Winchester, they will serve for an Escort for Mr Walkers second Convoy of Provision’s. You’ll please tell the Commanding Officer that any Carriages he wants upon his March shall be paid for upon his giving them a Certificate of their Service. the other two hundred of them that arrivd at Alexandria, are to March up by Fort Frederick.”1

As your March from hence depends upon the readiness of the Convoy, you are to consult Mr Commissary Walker on that head. I am Sir Yr most Obedt Hble Servt

Go: Washington

Fort Loudoun 24th June 1758

LB (original), DLC:GW; LB (recopied), DLC:GW.

  1. 1. For a discussion of the arrival of three companies of North Carolina provincials to join Forbes’s expedition, see Clair to GW, 22 June, n.3.

Index Entries

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http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-05-02-0183

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SCHOHARIE ?   NY

http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/03-16-02-0490

 

 

November 1, 2016 Tuesday

 

From Adam Stephen

Fort Cumberland [Md.] May 31st 1756

 

http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-03-02-0184

 

 

papers of the War Dept 1784 to 1800

 

Tuscarora chiefs assembled in council

http://wardepartmentpapers.org/searchresults.php?searchClass=fulltextSearch&fulltextQuery=Tuscarora+Chiefs+assembled+in+council&orderBy=&page=1

 

 

Nottoway

 

http://wardepartmentpapers.org/searchresults.php?searchClass=fulltextSearch&firstSearch=true&fulltextQuery=nottoway+chiefs&submitSearchSimple=Search

 

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King Tom Blount

The Negotiator

David La Vere

DOI:10.5149/northcarolina/9781469610900.003.0008

This chapter focuses on the outrage felt by Governor Edward Hyde and Council President Thomas Pollock toward “Tuscarora Jack.” Barnwell’s earlier ravings had alienated both of them. Then against their explicit orders he had made a treaty with the Tuscaroras and their allies, which essentially let them off the hook. If that were not bad enough, as they saw it, he had then violated his own treaty by attacking and enslaving the Cores and their allies. That had only started the Indian attacks all over again. Hyde and Pollock were not so much angry at his enslaving the Indians; rather they blamed him for not having utterly destroyed the Indians in the first place. Now North Carolina was paying for Barnwell’s actions.

Keywords:   Governor Edward HydeCouncil PresidentThomas PollockTuscarora JackIndian attacks

North Carolina Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

http://northcarolina.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.5149/9781469610917_LaVere/upso-9781469610900-chapter-8

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Captain Tom Step

tribal emissariesWilliamsburg saw many tribal emissaries in the 18th century.

  • Nottoway Indian
  • Multi-lingual in European and Native languages
  • Literate
  • Fought for Virginia during the French & Indian War

Childhood

Born in Isle of Wight County c.1725, Tom Step was raised in an Iroquoian-speaking community on the colonial frontier. During the first half of the 18th century, the Nottoway Indians had two towns south of the Blackwater River, the larger one situated along Assamoosick Swamp in present-day Southampton County, Virginia.

During Step’s youth, the Nottoway Great Town was fortified and served as a trading center for Euro-Indian commerce and as a military rally point for colonial rangers. Land speculators, surveyors, Indian traders, and planters were some of the frequent colonial visitors to the Native villages.

Tom Step grew up during a period of change for Nottoway people: he learned to use the bow and arrow alongside firearms; his grandparent’s clothing of buckskin was replaced with that of manufactured cloth; the deer he hunted became more valuable for the skin trade than as a food source. The introduction of alcohol, domesticated animals, slave labor and ideas of property division drastically altered the cultural landscape surrounding Tom Step’s natal community.

The Brafferton Indian School at the College of William & Mary

The Nottoway were tributary to the English Crown, via the Virginia governor, since the 1677 Treaty of Middle Plantation. Visits to Jamestown, and later Williamsburg, were commonplace. The Nottoway paid a quit rent of three arrows and a tribute of twenty beaver skins to the governor at his residence in March of each year.

By Tom Step’s time, the Nottoway annual tribute was suspended in favor of sending Nottoway youth to the Brafferton Indian School at the College of William & Mary. It is likely that Step attended the school founded for the “Western Indians” education in “good letters and manners, and… the Christian faith.” Later records indicate Step was literate and spoke two or three Indian languages, as well as English.

During the early 1750s Tom Step, “one of the chief men,” is referenced in several Nottoway deeds and the Journal of the House of Burgesses. His contemporary headmen were also students of the College and frequenters of Williamsburg. Iroquoians Alexander and Robert Scholar most likely took their surname from the title given to the colonial students of William & Mary, “Scholars.” Nottoway students, like Tom Step and the Scholars, continued to attend the Brafferton School until its closing in the 1770s.

Captain Tom StepCaptain Tom Step led war parties in the French and Indian War.

Diplomat and War Captain

Native diplomacy and tribal emissaries in Williamsburg were constant during the eighteenth century. The Nottoway signed several treaties in the colonial capital and were present for dozens of exchanges between Virginia and the Northern Iroquoians, Cherokee, Catawba and their Siouan-speaking allies. In one instance, Tom Step and other Nottoway headmen lead a treaty delegation to confront Cherokee ambassadors in Williamsburg. The August 16th, 1751 edition of the Virginia Gazette recounts the Nottoway-Cherokee heated discourse, wampum presentation, and ceremonial pipe smoking on the steps of Williamsburg’s courthouse. The peace bonds that Step and other Nottoway made with the Cherokee encouraged their later united participation in the French & Indian War.

As allies to the British Crown, Tom Step led the Nottoway to Williamsburg “to renew their ancient League with their brothers the Cherokees, which was done in the Market Place, by smoking the Pipe, &c. after which the Cherokee Warrior made a long speech, desiring the Nottoways to go immediately to the Assistance of their Brothers the English.” In April of 1756, Step and fifteen other Nottoway joined the Cherokee warriors, following Isle of Wight’s Lt. James Baker to assist Lt. Colonel George Washington in Winchester.

During the War, Tom Step was referred to as “Captain Tom,” leading war parties against the French and their Indian allies in the disputed territory of western Pennsylvania and Maryland. The summer of 1756 was particularly difficult on the forward garrisons – supplies and dwindling recruitments left much to be desired.

Lt. Governor Robert Dinwiddie and Lt. Colonel Washington encouraged the Cherokee, Catawba, and Tuscarora to join Virginia and the Nottoway against the French; Washington believed their service was worth “more than twice their number of white men” in the woodland warfare of the frontier. In August, Washington sent Capt. Tom Step with wampum and a speech to formally invite the Tuscarora and other tributary Indians to join the Virginia ranks. Capt. Tom persevered, recruiting upwards of seventy Nottoway, Tuscarora, and Meherrin warriors.

Eventually joined by Catawba and more Cherokee, Step and the Nottoway fought “against the French, faithfully and honestly, until the reduction of Fort Du Quesne…and did behave themselves with great Bravery during the…campaign…” Near the conclusion of the hostilities, Washington and the House of Burgesses singled out “Tom Step, who distinguished himself very remarkably in the Action…” The House ordered “…that the Treasurer be desired to purchase a Silver Gorget and suit of Clothes, [to] be presented to Captain Thomas Step, one of the Nottoway Indians, as a mark of distinction, and as reward for his brave and gallant behavior during the last campaign.”

Later Years

Thomas Step continued to be a primary figure in Nottoway politics and commerce, appearing in the colonial capital with land sale petitions and arguing for Nottoway monetary compensation for wartime service. He possibly fought alongside Virginians and the Tuscarora in the Cherokee War of the early 1760s. Step’s leadership may have also influenced Tuscarora reservation land sales and leases in North Carolina. A number of Nottoway, Meherrin, and Tuscarora removed from Virginia – Carolina in the mid 1760s – the body taking residence in New York among their Iroquois brethren.

Doubtless, the connections made during the late northern war rekindled kinship ties with the Six Nations. A portion of the communities remained in Virginia, but became increasingly politically isolated and marginalized. Nottoway connections with Williamsburg declined after the Indian school closed in 1777 and the capital moved to Richmond in 1780. Capt. Tom’s descendants and relatives continued in Southampton County, where the Step surname survived among the Nottoway well into the 19th century.

http://www.history.org/almanack/people/bios/biostep.cfm

Learn more:


 

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“Tuscarora Jack” Barnwell- Founder of Beaufort, SC

“Tuscarora Jack” Barnwell- Founder of Beaufort, SC

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https://www.jstor.org/stable/27575182?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Barnwell_(colonist)

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