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Oct
26

Fry Jefferson Map

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When:
July 1, 2017 @ 6:59 pm – 7:59 pm
2017-07-01T18:59:00-04:00
2017-07-01T19:59:00-04:00

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Whereas Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson compiled the map from many sources, you could say that Thomas Jefferys was the Producer of this map and shepherded the revisions to it.

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Joshua Fry (1699? to  May 31, 1754?)

Peter Jefferson (February 29, 1708 – August 17, 1757) 

Thomas Jefferys (c. 1719 – 1771)

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Fry-Jefferson Map

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This map of Virginia, commissioned in 1750 by acting governor Lewis Burwell.

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Who was Lewis Burwell?

Lewis Burwell (1711-1756) was President of Council, and acting Governor of Virginia from November 21, 1750–November 21, 1751, until Robert Dinwiddie, Lt Gov took over as acting Governor for the absent, Lord Loudoun, Gov of VA.

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Map made by who?

Known as the Fry-Jefferson map, it was prepared by surveyors and cartographers Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson (father of Thomas Jefferson).

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Map dedicated to who?

The map was dedicated to George Montague-Dunk, second earl of Halifax, president of the Board of Trade, and the other commissioners who served with him.

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Halifax had sought information on the status of the English colony and, in response, Burwell selected Fry and Jefferson to draw a map of the region.

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Thomas Jefferys’ Map Revisions

Click on images to enlarge.

Engraved and printed by Thomas Jefferys, geographer to the Prince of Wales, the map was first published late in the summer of 1753

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The edition shown here is 1755. See the Ohio Store at Willis Creek where Fort Cumberland is built in June and July 1755 during the Braddock Expedition.

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The edition shown here was published in 1755, showing more of eastern region to show Ashby’s Gap, the same Captain John “Jack Ashby of the Fort Ashby built in 1755.  Although this map had many  revisions of the 1751 map, the revisions don’t include the 1755 Fort Ashby.

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The elaborate cartouche, which depicts a tobacco planter conducting business on a wharf, was designed by artist Francis Hayman.

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Original Author: Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, cartographers; Thomas Jefferys, engraver and printer; cartouche designed by Francis Hayman

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Created: Drawn 1751; first published 1753; this edition published 1755

Medium: Engraved map with outline color and watercolor

Courtesy of Library of Virginia

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https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/media_player?mets_filename=evm00002619mets.xml

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Thomas Jefferys Maps

https://www.loc.gov/maps/?fa=contributor%3Ajefferys%2C+thomas

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1754 Map of China in this list

https://www.raremaps.com/gallery/browse/creator_id/113

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Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson Maps

https://www.loc.gov/maps/?fa=contributor%3Ajefferys%2C+thomas%7Ccontributor%3Afry%2C+joshua

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https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3880.ct000370/

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In 1751 Fry and Jefferson delivered a draft of the map to Burwell, who forwarded it to London with a description of Virginia’s boundaries and back settlements, compiled by Fry, and a brief account of the travels of John Peter Salley, a German man living in Augusta County. The Board of Trade paid Jefferson and Fry £150 each, and their work became the property of the English government.

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In 1754 Jefferys reworked the map’s western plates to include information provided by the surveyor and explorer Christopher Gist, whom Fry had met on an expedition to the forks of the Ohio River in 1752. Gist’s contributions are noted in the legend printed on the map’s subsequent states. Lake Erie was deleted, and several rivers were extended, altered, or deleted and replaced by Gist’s data on the correct course of the Ohio, Kanawha, and New rivers and the French settlement along the Pennsylvania frontier. How Jefferys received this information is puzzling to scholars: Fry may have added information from Gist’s surveys to his own manuscript map during the time the two were together in Pennsylvania, or Fry may have sent Gist’s journal and parchment map directly to Jefferys. It is plausible that Captain John Dalrymple, Fry’s quartermaster during the western Pennsylvania expedition, carried this information to Jefferys when he returned to London in 1754.

In the second state of the map, published in 1754, new mountains were added; the eastern section was augmented by the addition of roads, including the Great Wagon Road from the Yadkin River through Virginia to Philadelphia, and the names of several towns and ordinaries. The word “most” was added to the title and a table of distances supplied by Dalrymple was added to the map itself.

Jefferys made additional geographical changes to A Map of the Most Inhabited Parts of Virginia, which are reflected in the third and fourth states published in 1755. He computed the longitude west from London for each degree indicated on the map and these were added to the plate in the appropriate places both top and bottom. The third state is easily recognized from other editions by incorrect longitude degree marks inside the upper and lower borders. The longitude degree marks were reworked in the fourth state, and this is the last state in which any geographical changes were made. Any changes made to the plates after 1755 reflect changes in their ownership.

In 1768 the Fry-Jefferson map began to be sold in atlases, such as the two that Jefferys published, A General Topography of North America and the West Indies (1768) and The American Atlas (1775), and William Faden’s two volumes, The North American Atlas (1777) and The General Atlas of the Four Grand Quarters of the World. The map was translated into French by two different French publishers, was copied by innumerable publishers, and was a major resource for cartographers such as John Henry, who mapped Virginia counties in his New and Accurate Map of Virginia (1770); Lewis Evans, who drew A General Map of the Middle British Colonies in America (1755); and John Mitchell, author of A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America (1755), which was used to determine the boundaries of the United States as set by the Treaty of Paris (1783) after the American Revolution (1765–1783).

Time Line

  • May 1731 – In response to several requests from the Board of Trade for a map of Virginia, Lieutenant Governor William Gooch sends members a poorly detailed manuscript map of the colony. Attempts to create a better map do not draw enough funding from the Board.
  • 1738 – Land surveyors Joshua Fry and Robert Brooke unsuccessfully petition the House of Burgesses to create a new and better map of the Virginia colony.
  • September 1744 – The House of Burgesses rejects for the last time the petition by surveyors Joshua Fry and Robert Brooke to create a better, more detailed map of Virginia.
  • January 15, 1750 – Prompted by territorial disputes with the French, the Board of Trade requests a map of Virginia.
  • 1751 – Lewis Burwell, acting governor of Virginia, appoints well-known land surveyors Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson to create a map of the colony for the Board of Trade.
  • August 1751 – Acting Governor Lewis Burwell forwards the map of Virginia drafted by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, along with a brief account of the travels of Augusta County resident John Peter Salley, to the Board of Trade in London.
  • March 1752 – The Fry-Jefferson map is presented to the commissioners of the Board of Trade and Plantations in London.
  • Summer 1753 – Thomas Jefferys, a publisher, engraver, and geographer to the Prince of Wales, publishes the first edition of the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, entitled A Map of the Inhabited Part of Virginia containing the whole Province of Maryland, with Part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina.
  • 1754 – Thomas Jefferys publishes the second edition of the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, now titled A Map of the Most Inhabited Parts of Virginia … This state of the map contains major revisions, the most significant being the corrected course of the Ohio River, based on information provided by surveyor and explorer Christopher Gist.
  • 1755 – Thomas Jefferys publishes the third and fourth states, or editions, of the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia. These are the last iterations of the map to be published with geographical changes.
  • 1775 – The sixth edition of the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia is published; in this state, or edition, the publication date in the cartouche, a decorative element containing the map’s title, is changed from 1751 to 1775.
  • ca. 1794 – The firm of Laurie and Whittle publishes the eighth and last-known state of the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia.
Further Reading
Hughes, Sarah S. Surveyors and Statesmen: Land Measuring in Colonial Virginia. Richmond: Virginia’s Surveyors Foundation and the Virginia Association of Surveyors, 1979.
Pritchard, Margaret Beck, and Henry G. Taliaferro. Degrees in Latitude: Mapping Colonial America.Williamsburg, Virginia: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation in Association with Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2002.
Stephenson, Richard, and Marianne McKee. Virginia In Maps: Four Centuries of Settlement, Growth, and Development. 2000. Second printing. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 2007.
Verner, Coolie. “The Fry and Jefferson Map.” Imago Mundi 21 (1967): 70–94.
Cite This Entry
  • APA Citation:Farrell, C. B. Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia. (2012, January 18). In Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.EncyclopediaVirginia.org/Fry-Jefferson_Map_of_Virginia.
  • MLA Citation:Farrell, Cassandra Britt. “Fry-Jefferson Map of Virginia.” Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 18 Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Oct. 2017.

First published: August 2, 2011 | Last modified: January 18, 2012


Contributed by Cassandra Britt Farrell, map specialist and senior research archivist at the Library of Virginia.
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Source:

https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Fry-Jefferson_Map_of_Virginia#start_entry

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Overview of the map and people involved:

http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/fry-jefferson/fry-jeffersonMap.asp

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List of Colonial Governors of VA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_colonial_governors_of_Virginia

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https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governors_of_Virginia

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Council of Virginia

https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Governor_s_Council_The

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  • Sir William Berkeley (1605–1677), governor, by October 1660–April 27, 1677; resident in Virginia except for the period April 30, 1661–November 1662, when he was absent on a voyage to England. Recalled in 1677.
  • Francis Moryson (before 1628–ca. 1681), lieutenant governor, acted during Berkeley’s absence, April 30, 1661–November 1662.
  • Thomas Culpeper, baron Culpeper of Thoresway (1635–1689), governor, July 20, 1677–August 1683; resident in Virginia May 10–August 11, 1680, and December 1682–May 22, 1683; represented during rest of term by deputy.
  • Herbert Jeffreys (d. 1678), appointed lieutenant governor after Berkeley’s recall, served April 27, 1677–December 17, 1678. Died in office.
  • Sir Henry Chicheley (1615–1683), deputy governor under Culpeper, December 30, 1678–May 10, 1680, and August 11, 1680–December 1682.
  • Nicholas Spencer (ca. 1638–1689), president of the Council, May 22, 1683–February 21, 1684.
  • Francis Howard, baron Howard of Effingham (bap. 1643–1695), governor, September 28, 1683–March 1, 1692; in Virginia February 21, 1684–February 1689, except for brief absences in New York during the summers of 1684 and 1687; represented during those intervals and for the remainder of his term by deputies.
  • Nathaniel Bacon Sr. (bap. 1620–1692), president of the Council, acted during Effingham’s absences, June–September 1684 and July–September 1687; also served February 1689–June 3, 1690.
  • Francis Nicholson (1655–1728), lieutenant governor, deputy to Effingham, June 3, 1690–September 20, 1692.
  • Sir Edmund Andros (1637–1714), governor, September 20, 1692–December 1698; in Virginia, except for a brief absence in Maryland, September–October 1698.
  • Ralph Wormeley (1650–1701), president of the Council, acted during Andros’s absence, September–October 1698.
  • Francis Nicholson (1655–1728), governor, December 9, 1698–August 15, 1705; in Virginia except for brief absences in 1700, 1703, and 1704.
  • William Byrd (1652–1704), president of the Council, acted during Nicholson’s absences, September–October 24, 1700, April–June 1703, and August–September 1704.
  • Edward Nott (1657–1706), governor, August 15, 1705–August 23, 1706. Died in office.
  • Edmund Jenings (1659–1727), president of the Council, August 27, 1706–June 10, 1708.
  • Robert Hunter (1666–1734), governor, April 22, 1707–September 1709. Captured by the French on his way to Virginia and never served in the colony.
  • Edmund Jennings (1659–1727), lieutenant governor, deputy to Hunter, June 10, 1708–June 23, 1710.
  • George Hamilton, Earl of Orkney (1666–1737), governor, February 18, 1710–January 29, 1737. Never went to Virginia and represented there by deputies.
  • Alexander Spotswood (1676–1740), lieutenant governor, deputy to Orkney, June 23, 1710–September 27, 1722.
  • Hugh Drysdale (ca. 1670–1726), lieutenant governor, deputy to Orkney, September 27, 1722–July 22, 1726. Died in office.
  • Robert Carter (ca.1664–1732), president of the Council, August 1, 1726–September 11, 1727.
  • Sir William Gooch (1681–1751), lieutenant governor, deputy to Orkney and to Albemarle, September 11, 1727–August 1749; in Virginia except for the period October 15, 1740–July 1741, when he was absent on the military expedition against Cartagena.
  • William Anne Keppel, Earl of Albemarle (1702–1754), governor, October 6, 1737–December 22, 1754. Never went to Virginia and was represented by deputies.
  • James Blair (ca. 1655–1743), president of the Council, acted during Gooch’s absence, October 15, 1740–July 1741.
  • John Robinson Sr. (1683–1749), president of the Council, from unrecorded date in mid- or late August 1749 to August 24, 1749. Died in office.
  • Thomas Lee (1690–1750), president of the Council, September 4, 1749–November 14, 1750. Died in office.
  • Lewis Burwell (1710–1756), president of the Council, November 21, 1750–November 21, 1751.
  • Robert Dinwiddie (1692–1770), lieutenant governor, deputy to Albemarle and to Loudoun, November 21, 1751–January 1758.
  • John Campbell, Earl of Loudoun (1705–1782), governor, March 8, 1756–July 1759. Never went to Virginia and was represented by deputies.
  • John Blair (ca. 1687–1771), president of the Council, January 12–June 7, 1758.
  • Francis Fauquier (1703–1768), lieutenant governor, deputy to Loudoun and to Amherst, June 7, 1758–March 3, 1768. Died in office.
  • Sir Jeffery Amherst (1717–1797), governor, September 25, 1759–July 1768. Never went to Virginia and was represented by deputies.
  • John Blair (ca. 1687–1771), president of the Council, March 4–October 26, 1768.
  • Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt (1717–1770), governor, October 26, 1768–October 15, 1770. Died in office.
  • William Nelson (1711–1772), president of the Council, October 15, 1770–September 25, 1771.
  • John Murray, Earl of Dunmore (1732–1809), governor, September 25, 1771–June 1775. Dunmore left Williamsburg on June 8, 1775, and sought refuge aboard a British warship. After Dunmore’s withdrawal, executive functions were performed by the eleven-man Committee of Safety, chaired by Edmund Pendleton, which was established on August 19, 1775 by Virginia’s third revolutionary convention. The committee functioned from the date of its creation through July 5, 1776.

Governors under the Commonwealth, 1776–1865

Under the Constitution of 1776, the General Assembly elected Virginia’s governors for one-year terms. No governor could serve more than three consecutive terms or be elected again until after an interval of four years. When the office became vacant by death or resignation, the president or senior member of the Council of State acted as governor until the assembly was able to choose a successor. The Constitution of 1830 left the election of the governor with the General Assembly but changed the term of office to three years with no eligibility for immediate reelection. Since the adoption of the Constitution of 1851, the voters have elected the governors for four-year terms with no eligibility for immediate reelection. The exception is the period Reconstruction, 1865–1870, when the commanding general of the military district of Virginia named the governor.

  • Patrick Henry (1736–1799), from Hanover County, July 6, 1776–June 1, 1779.
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), from Albemarle County, June 2, 1779–June 3, 1781.
  • William Fleming (1729–1795), from Botetourt County, member of the Council of State acting as governor, June 4–12, 1781.
  • Thomas Nelson (1738–1789), from Yorktown, York County, June 12–November 22, 1781.
  • David Jameson (after 1720–1793), from Yorktown, York County, member of the Council of State acting as governor, November 22–30, 1781.
  • Benjamin Harrison (1726–1791), from Charles City County, December 1, 1781–November 30, 1784.
  • Patrick Henry (1736–1799), then resident in Henry County, November 30, 1784–November 30, 1786.
  • Edmund Randolph (1753–1813), from Henrico County, November 30, 1786–November 12, 1788.
  • Beverley Randolph (1754–1797), from Cumberland County, November 12, 1788–December 1, 1791.
  • Henry Lee (1756–1818), from Westmoreland County, December 1, 1791–December 1, 1794, Federalist.
  • Robert Brooke (1751–1800), from Spotsylvania County, December 1, 1794–November 30, 1796, Democratic-Republican.
  • James Wood (1741–1813), from Frederick County, November 30, 1796–December 6, 1799, Federalist.

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