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Nov
20

George Washington Moves Into Fort Loudoun

By
When:
December 2, 2018 all-day
2018-12-02T00:00:00-05:00
2018-12-03T00:00:00-05:00
Where:
419 N Loudoun St
Winchester, VA 22601
USA

COLONEL WASHINGTON MOVES INTO FORT LOUDOUN

by Jim Moyer  compiled 2013, updated 11/25/2019, 11/30/2019

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George Washington slept here in Winchester VA.

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He sure did.

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The Move

December 2, 1756 

George Washington moves out  of Cocks Tavern on Lot 8 into Fort Loudoun in Winchester VA.

Even though James Wood received a tract granted by the Governor and Council of VA, he knew Lord Fairfax was going to win in court and so he settlled quickly with Lord Fairfax and together in 1752 they presented this map to the House of Burgesses. From Quarles-2 p 42-43. CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE

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Where is Lot 8?

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21 South Loudoun Street.

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Across the way is Winchester Thai restaurant.

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Colonel George Washington

moves

to his quarters

at Fort Loudoun,

Winchester VA.

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GW pays up 2 days after he moves out of Cocks house.  He pays  40 lbs, a year’s rent to Cocks.

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Showing left to right: Fay Dutton, Phil Hunter, Susan Howard. Location is Fort Loudoun Winchester VA. Celebrating Presidents Day 18 Feb 2018.

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Phil Hunter has long portrayed the character of William Cocks, tavern owner on Lot 8.

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Many patents for lots were claimed on May 15, 1753.  One of which was a patent for Lot 8 Lord Fairfax conveyed to William Cocks.

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Sources:

See pages 31-32 Quarles-1

See pages  42-43 Quarles-2

See page 34 Baker Fort Loudoun.

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Scroll down further for full bibliography.

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Map taken from Winchester Tax Parcel interactive map. See this excellent link:  https://gis.winchesterva.gov/taxparcelmapping/

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A Year’s Rent

On December 4, 1756 Colonel George Washington’s account book, Ledger A:

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. The building at 21 South Loudoun Street sits roughly where Cocks Tavern was located. See this link for more information on that site: https://visitwinchesterva.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/HistoryandArchitectureBrochure_web.pdf

Paid  40 lbs to “Captain Cocks  for rent of his house”  – source page 31, Quarles-1

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This is  on Lot 8 covers an area including 21 South Loudoun Street .

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According to Quarles-1, page 31:

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It [the tavern house] was on Inlot Number 8 in the 1752 plan by John Baylis for the Town of Winchester.

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It fronted a distance of 119 feet on the west side of South Loudoun Street [where it fronts the walking mall ], extended westward 189 feet, 9 inches, and had an area of about one half acre.

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Thai Winchester Restaurant looks across to where Cocks Tavern was.

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In terms of present day landmarks [Quarles wrote in the 1950s and updated in 1970s] the frontage of Lot Number 8 on Loudoun Street extended from the Town Run to the south line of Patterson Furniture Company, and it ran westward to Indian Alley.

 

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Across from 21 South Loudoun Street on the  Loudoun Street walking mall is the Thai Winchester Restaurant.

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GW’s Room

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Drawing by Norman Baker. Text and pointer added by Jim Moyer.

Morton on page 74 states,

Tradition has it that a room in the fort used by Washington was above the gateway commanding a view of Main Street (Loudoun Street).”

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This tradition Morton speaks of is supported by the design of the fort.

 

Below GW’s quarters ?

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GW’s first design of the fort –  designates a dining room.

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GW’s 2nd design of the fort – designates Officers’ Guard room.

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. First design of two by George Washington of Fort Loudoun Winchester VA

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Construction  of Fort Loudoun started 18 May 1756.   That day is observed by local historians and living history interpreters each year by the French and Indian War Foundation as Fort Loudoun Day.

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By 2 December 1756, quarters were suitable enough for Colonel George Washington to move in.

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Dateline on Letters

Washington always “datelines” his letters telling the reader his location.

captioned 419 N Loudoun Street aerial

Touch or Click to Enlarge

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After 

2 December 1756

Washington datelines

his letters

“Fort Loudoun.”

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Before

2 December 1756

all letter by

George Washington

were

datelined

“Winchester.”

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First Letter from the Fort

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Photo and old style cut and paste by Jim Moyer, showing Fort Loudoun on the hill. At that corner where the men assembled is alleged by Morton to be the military prison. Touch or Click to Enlarge.

On 2 December, 1756, Col Washington’s letter to Lt Gov Dinwiddie is datelined “Fort Loudoun”   .

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After detailing how the supplies have just been moved to Winchester from Fort Cumberland, Washington suggests that they should remain in Winchester:

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“And lastly; Winchester is in the centre, as it were, of all the Forts; is convenient for receiving intelligence & distributing orders—and notwithstanding any thing to the contrary, lies in a vale of land that has suffered more than any other from the incursions of the Enemy.

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So Which Cocks or Cocke  or Cox?

We believe the tavern owner was also the Ranger Captain William Cocks.

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Dr Warren Hofstra is signing a book for Phil Hunter who has long portrayed tavern owner William Cocks at 21 S Loudoun St on lot 8 of Winchester surveyed by John Baylis in 1752. Dr Warren Hofstra has an excellent map on all of the tippling houses, taverns, ordinaries existing during GW’s stay in Winchester VA.

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There was a Captain Thomas Cocke in the Virginia Regiment.

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And there was a Friend Cox who owned a fort house near the Potomac.

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Scroll past the Sources to look at the different names of Cocks, Cocke, Cox.

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Sources:

——————————————————————————-

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Refer to as Baker

Fort Loudoun, Washington’s Fort in Virginia by Norman Baker, 2006 – referred to as “Baker Fort Loudoun.”

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Refer to as Quarles-1

George Washington and Winchester Virginia 1748-1758 by Garland R Quarles published in in Volume VIII of Winchester Frederick County Historical Society Papers 1974

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Refer to as Quarles-2

Garland Quarles detailed a good chronology of Winchester’s origins in 1952, “Streets of Winchester,” later re-published by the Winchester Frederick County Historical Society in a 1996 book, titled, “Winchester Virginia, Streets, Churches, Schools,”  pages 39-45

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Refer to as Morton

The Story of Winchester in Virginia, The Oldest Town in the Shenandoah Valley by Frederick Morton, 1925, republished by Heritage Books 2007

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DISAMBIGUATION

OF THE NAME OF

COCKS, COCKE, COX


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William Cocks

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Phil Hunter has portrayed the character of William Cox tavern owner at 21 South Loudoun St on the Lot 8. This picture is from 3 July 2012 celebrating Rockin’ Independence Eve.

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Many patents for lots were claimed on May 15, 1753.  One of which was a patent for Lot 8 Lord Fairfax conveyed to William Cocks.

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As an aside: George Washington had received a lot 77 on corner of Braddock and Fairfax Lane on the same day.  And later GW installed his Blacksmith on that corner for iron works needed for Fort Loudoun.

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Colonel George Washington pays 40 lbs for a year’s rent to a Captain “Cocks.”

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William Cocks was the owner of Cocks Tavern, 21 South Loudoun Street in Winchester VA, Lot 8 map drawn in 1752 addition.

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Left to Right. Marc Robinson and Phil Hunter at the Fort Loudoun site 18 Feb 2019 Presidents Day. Phil Hunter has long portrayed William Cocks, tavern owner where Colonel George Washington rented living quarters for a year until 2 December 1756. Then GW moved into Fort Loudoun Winchester VA. Marc Robinson is in the Virginia Regiment Uniform. He takes on the duty as President of the James Wood II Chapter of the Sons of American Revolution in 2020.

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Source is Pages 31-32 from  Garland R. Quarles, author of “George Washington and Winchester VA 1748-1758, A Decade of Preparation for Responsibilities to Come,” 1974, published by Winchester Frederick County Historical Society.

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So William Cocks, the tavern house owner, was both one of the first Captains of 2 Ranger Companies created.

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All Correspondence between George Washington and William Cocks.

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Braddock stayed at Captain Cock’s tavern house.   See  letter  July 5, 1754, from Dinwiddie at Captain Cock’s .

A Captain in the Rangers, commanding one of the 1st two forts built on the Patterson Creek.

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All Correspondence between George Washington and William Cocks

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From Founders Online footnote:

William Cocks and Jack Ashby were the first 2 ranger companies created.  Both commanded forts on the Patterson.

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Founders Online footnote:

“When GW assumed command of the Virginia Regiment on 1 Sept. 1755, he also became commander of all other Virginia forces, which included the companies of rangers commanded by William Cocks and John Ashby.”

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Touch or Click to Enlarge. Left to Right. Dr Warren Hofstra, Phil Hunter. 18 July 2010. Dr Warren Hofstra, historian has an excellent map of all the tippling houses and ordinaries and taverns in Winchester at the time of George Washington. Phil Hunter portrays Captain William Cocks, tavern owner at 21 S Loudoun St, Lot 8.

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Founders Online footnote:

2William Cocks’s and John Ashby’s companies of rangers were organized for the defense of Frederick and Hampshire counties in July 1755 even before word came of Braddock’s defeat. The rangers had been stationed at the two forts they built on Patterson Creek since the early fall of 1755. Funds for maintaining the ranger companies were running out, and GW gave “Furloes” to both Cocks and Ashby in hopes of enrolling individual rangers in the Virginia Regiment during the absences of their captains (GW to Dinwiddie, 4 Aug. 1756). Cocks went on from Winchester to Williamsburg in August to press his claims for money, and “after a Melancholy stay of ten days, Spent in Murmur, Silence, Complaints, Grief, and Remorse, hurrys homewards to taste true happiness in Content & retirement (John Kirkpatrick to GW, 19 Aug. 1756). GW wrote Dinwiddie on 8 Sept. that he found the rangers “quite averse to enlisting into the Regiment.”

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Founders Online footnote:

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6On 18 Sept. 1754 Dinwiddie instructed William Cocks of Winchester to provide goods for Indian presents and subsequently proposed that Cocks be the commissary’s deputy to secure provisions and wagons at Winchester for Braddock’s expedition. Cocks became captain of the 1st company of rangers at Winchester in July 1755. Shortly before GW arrived on 14 Sept. for his first visit to Winchester after taking command of the Virginia Regiment, Cocks left town with his rangers, who then numbered nine or more, to patrol the area around the headwaters of Patterson Creek above the South Branch of the Potomac. When GW issued these orders on 10 Oct., Captain Cocks was at the Middle Branch with his rangers to protect the terrified inhabitants there. See William Cocks’s company rolls, 21 Oct. 1755, and his journal, 8 Sept.—20 Oct. 1755, both in DLC:GW.

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7John Ashby (1707–1789) and his rangers seem to have been in the vicinity of Patterson Creek when the Indians struck on 1 Oct. Until the rangers disbanded in the summer of 1756, both Ashby and Cocks continued to operate with their men between the South Branch of the Potomac and Fort Cumberland, Md., manning small forts on Patterson Creek, going on patrols, and escorting wagons to and from Cumberland. Ashby’s company of rangers was the second of those in Frederick and Hampshire counties for which Lord Fairfax issued Dinwiddie’s commissions of early July 1755. Ashby initially had little success in recruiting, but by 2 Oct. he had enlisted at least 28 rangers. There is no evidence that Ashby entered the Virginia Regiment after losing his ranger company, but he did participate in the Battle of Point Pleasant in 1774 when he was well past the age of 60. For a full identification of John Ashby, see GW’s Diaries description begins Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig, eds. The Diaries of George Washington. 6 vols. Charlottesville, Va., 1976–79. description ends , 1:6–7.

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Founders Online footnote

When GW assumed command of the Virginia Regiment on 1 Sept. 1755, he also became commander of all other Virginia forces, which included the companies of rangers commanded by William Cocks and John Ashby. Presumably “the money in my hands” which he refers to here was money provided by Dinwiddie out of the appropriation for the rangers in July 1755. In response to this letter, Dinwiddie wrote GW on 19 Aug. 1756 that he was writing to “Colo. Fairfax to pay You the Balla. in his Hands of 600£ he had of me,” but on 8 Sept. GW wrote Dinwiddie that he would have to discharge the rangers “as the fund is exhausted.” On 20 Oct. 1756, however, GW recorded a payment of £68 13s. 9d. from George William Fairfax of “Rangers Money.” 

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Source:

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-03-02-0289#GEWN-02-03-02-0289-fn-0020

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Thomas Cocke

A Captain in the Virginia Regiment

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Founders Online footnote:

Capt. Thomas Cocke was probably the son of the Thomas Cocke of Surry County who died in 1750. In Dec. 1754 Dinwiddie made Cocke a captain, and he continued at that rank after GW took command of the regiment. In Jan. 1756 Cocke’s company was numbered the 5th in the Virginia Regiment and in July the 7th. Cocke lost his captaincy when the number of companies in the  regiment was reduced in 1757. In June 1758 he secured the same rank in the 2d Virginia Regiment.

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https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-02-02-0044

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Thomas Cocke listed as Captain in Sept 17, 1755

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For later followup:

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Which William Cocke or William Cocks?

Whoever it is, this involves the VA Regiment

https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-06-02-0090#GEWN-02-06-02-0090-fn-0002

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