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Jan
21

Lord Bute – Ends the War

By
When:
February 10, 2017 @ 2:09 pm – 3:09 pm
2017-02-10T14:09:00-05:00
2017-02-10T15:09:00-05:00

First published on Friends of Fort Loudoun Facebook page as Sunday Word on 1/14/2018
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Lord Bute 1713-1792

is the engine behind ending the Seven Years World Wide War

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Lord Bute by Sir Joshua Reynolds, oil on canvas, 1773, seven years after Lord Bute pushed to end the 7 Years War (our French and Indian War)

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Not the sole engine of course . . .

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Doubling the national debt

sure put pressure to find ways to cut costs.

 

A new King no longer tied to Hanover or the German region

wanting to increase the power of the King’s prerogative

and who was advised and tutored by Lord Bute

since he was 13 sure helped . . .

 

And a new French Minister who was quick,  facile, imaginative

and accomplished, and whose King and nation were

under the same debt pressures sure helped .  . .

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Pitt was against this Giveaway Peace

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Lord Bute was blamed

for giving back conquests
in the Peace of 1763,

the end of the French and Indian War.

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Source:
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/treaty-of-paris
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William Pitt, the Elder,

returned to parliament in ill health

 to deliver a scathing,

three-hour speech

attacking the proposed giveaways for peace.

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Sources:
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/pms/chatham.html

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 http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1754-1790/member/pitt-william-1708-78

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In opposition to Pitt’s speech, a contemporary poem, The Rodondo, Dalrymple described the occasion:

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The groundlings cry alas! poor man!
How ill he is! how pale! how wan!
At length he tries to rise, a hum
Of approbation fills the room.
He bows and tries again; but no,
He finds that standing will not do,
And therefore to complete the farce,
The House cries, ‘Hear him on his a__e!’
He may break off by grief o’ercome,
And grow pathetically dumb!
He next may SWOON and shut his eyes;
A cordial, else the patriot dies!
The cordial comes, he takes it off;
He lives, he lives, I hear him cough …
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But what was Given Away?

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See this link on the deal

the deal makers made:

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TREATY OF PARIS 10 FEBRUARY 1763

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LORD BUTE WAS FRIEND TO WHOM?

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Lord Bute was friend to

 Frederick, Prince of Wales

from Hanover

(in what is now Germany)

who Frederick Co VA is named after.

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Lord Bute was also friend to “Frederick’s” wife Augusta.

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Then Lord Bute was friend to

Frederick’s son,

future King George III,
while being

falsely accused of

“relations” with  widow, Augusta.

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FREDERICK AND AUGUSTA COUNTIES IN VIRGINIA

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Both Frederick and

Augusta counties

were created in 1738

to honor Frederick, Prince of Wales and

his Wife, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.

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And Lord Bute was their friend and trusted advisor.

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And they all resided at Leicester House, home of opposition to King George II.

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Sources:

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leicester_House

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http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/periods/hanoverians/leicester-house-faction
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http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vols33-4/pp441-472#h3-0003

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Knowing this history, maybe that’s why Lord Fairfax or his nephew Thomas Bryan Martin picked Leicester as one of the London Street names in their proposed 1759 addition to Winchester VA.

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See the Story on Frederick.

He had a great future cut short.

Almost Camelot.

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And with that story is also the origins of our Frederick Co VA.

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http://frenchandindianwarfoundation.org/frederick-louis-prince-of-wales/
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LORD BUTE AS TUTOR

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Lord Bute introduced

to the young future King George III

the book, The Patriot King,

by Bolingbroke.

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Our 2nd President John Adams

read Bolingbroke’s works at least 5 times.

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Source:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_St_John,_1st_Viscount_Bolingbroke#Impact
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LORD BUTE – ORIGIN OF “JACKBOOT”

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Lord Bute is also the origin of Jack Boot, symbol of oppression,

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Sources:
http://www.historyhouse.co.uk/articles/jackboot.html
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https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8JDpO5KNSUkC&vq=jackboot&pg=PA486&hl=en#v=onepage&q=jack%20boot&f=false
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The firings of all of Newcastles’s patronage  looked unnecessary

the setting up of Newcastle to get him to resign  first time didn’t take

The perceived Rasputin like control of the young King

and similar and but deeper and wider than the Saturday Night Massacre of Richard Nixon’s ordering of Robert Bork to fire the prosecutor during Watergate.

 

 

Riots broke out and there were hangings of effigies of Bute – mainly boots. Friends of Lord Bute were stoned in the streets and the mob smashed the windows in Bute’s house.

http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/ministry/butemin.htm
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And he was only Prime Minister for almost a year, 26 May 1762 to 8 April 1763.
But his impact lasted decades and so did the hate and suspicion of him
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But he ended the expensive war, working privately with French diplomat Étienne-François de Stainville, duc de Choiseul.
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For being a Jack Boot, many thought he had undue influence on King George III, but many also called Lord Bute an appeaser as Winston Churchill did in his review of history. St
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MORE ON LORD BUTE

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Lord Bute and Samuel Johnson

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Lord Bute was a Good friend to Samuel Johnson, author of the first comprehensive dictionary of English words in 1755.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Johnson#A_Dictionary_of_the_English_Language
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Lord Bute and Samuel Johnson often met at Lord Bute’s home, called Lutton Loo:

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luton_Hoo

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Boswell, who wrote a book about Samuel Johnson.

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This book by Boswell on Samuel Johnson

was held by our Captain Mercer’s Dad

who built a library in Marlborough VA,

a library so vast,

that later was given honor

by George Mason University

naming its college library,

the Mercer Library.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/40255/40255-h/40255-h.htm#Page_198

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https://library.gmu.edu/locations/mercer

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Lord Bute in Trouble before he was in Trouble

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A Political Cartoon of Lord Bute

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And before the appeasement in the peace treaty?
Lord Bute is in big trouble.

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Lord Bute holds the reins

on the British Lion bitted and bridled

and is depicted

as one of The Asses of Great Britain.

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http://www.ouramericanrevolution.org/index.cfm/object/view/ob0160
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About those Indians in the Political Cartoon?

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Also depicted are 3 Cherokees

in that political cartoon

of Lord Bute

riding the English Lion:

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Three Cherokee Chiefs

visited London June 18, 1762
looking for help.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Timberlake#Visits_to_London
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Lord Bute was there with King George III

to see these Cherokee

who were escorted by Timberlake

who along with Lt Col Adam Stephen

helped build a fort

during the earlier Anglo-Cherokee Wars.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timberlake_Expedition
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But that’s another story.
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Picture  of Lord Bute

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Seven Years after the Seven Years War almost:

painted 31 December 1772 by joshua reynolds

http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/ministry/butemin.htm
1911 brittannica

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https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Bute,_John_Stuart,_3rd_Earl_of

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there’s an 1878 version

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https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica,_Ninth_Edition/John_Stuart,_third_Earl_of_Bute

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abuse
Few politicians can have been as maligned, insulted and manhandled as John Stuart, third earl of Bute. Before 1760, cosseted within the confines of the Prince of Wales’s court at Leicester House, this former Scottish representative peer was of little public note although he had acted as the lifeline between Pitt and the reversionary interest between 1755 and 1758. In London society he was known for his intellectual pretensions (he was a very competent botanist), his haughty airs, and a shapely figure which was displayed to such good effect in the theatrical productions held under the auspices of the Princess Dowager. It was only after 1760, when it became abundantly clear that the youthful George — if not his mother – was infatuated with Bute, that the royal favourite was exposed to the bleak winds of political hostility,. Admittedly there were rumours before George’s accession about the subsequently notorious liaison between Bute and the Princess Dowager, rumours that Sir John Pringle told Boswell emanated from the intrigues of Bute’s rivals at Leicester House. But these were a mere foretaste of what was to come: after 1760, whether Bute was serving the king (1761–3) or out of office, he was attacked by the mob, threatened with assassination, vilified in pamphlets, prints, newspapers, songs, plays, and handbills, and effectively rejected as a potential ally by all the leading politicians of the day except for the none too politically respectable Henry Fox. The bulk of this criticism was levelled in the 1760s, but even after 1770 the so-called ‘Northern Machiavel’ was under withering if increasingly sporadic fire, and as late as the 1780s vestigial elements of the old hostility remained

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/historical-journal/article/div-classtitlethe-misfortunes-of-lord-bute-a-case-study-in-eighteenth-century-political-argument-and-public-opiniondiv/F2FA5332AAE5F4FEF5FE04FCA0961794
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Satire on the negotiations for the Peace of Paris. A lion and lioness (the King and Queen) look in alarm from the window of acoach (Great Britain) as it crashes against a large rock. Lord Bute, the driver, and Princess Augusta, who has been sitting beside him, fall headlong to the ground and the horses (bearing names connected with British actions in the Seven Years War: “Germany”, “Guardeloup”, “Pondechery”, “America”, “Martinico” and “Quebec”) run off. Bute cries out, “De’el dam that Havanna Snuff its all most blinded me”. The postilion, Henry Fox, lies on the ground having hit his head on a rock labelled “Newfound Land”; a speech ballon lettered “Snugg” emerges from his mouth. Behind him Pitt, holding a whip, grasps the leading horse’s reins; the Marquis of Granby gallops up to assist him, together with William Beckford (who was shortly to become Lord Mayor of London) and the Duke of Newcastle. In the foreground is a conflict involving a number of journalists: Bute’s supporters, Arthur Murphy and Tobias Smollett shoot their pistols at Pitt, and further to the right Charles Churchill, in clerical robes, fires a cannon labelled “North Briton” at them, causing another man to fall to the ground his arm resting on a copy of the Gazetteer (the fallen man must be either Charles Say, editor, or John Almon, contributor to the Gazetteer, an anti-Bute newspaper), with the headline, “A letter from Darlington” (a reference to Henry Vane, 2nd Earl of Darlington, a relation of Bute’s by marriage). The British lion beside Churchill urinates on the Scottish thistle. Behind this group, the Duke of Cumberland runs forward anxiously mopping his bald head, having lost his wig. In the background are Lord Mansfield and the Earl of Loudon, the latter suggesting that they retreat (a reference to his failure to capture Louisbourg from the French in 1757). To the right a group of Scotsmen are driven off by two Englishmen with whips; another Scot sits on the ground scratching himself.
Etching
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⦁ Inscription Content
⦁ Lettered with the title, captions in the image and four verses of four lines each ‘With ruptures Britannia take notice at last … Soon rot stink and die, and be trod under Feet’; annotated in pen and ink by Hawkins, ‘Brit Antid. No. 31. / Granby. / Pitt. / Fox / Beckford / Murphy / Smollett / Newcastle / Pss Wales / Bute / Geo. III & Charl. / Mansfield / Granbys [?]land / Churchill / 1762’.
Curator’s comments
The print was advertised in the ‘St James’s Chronicle’, 2-4 September 1762, and ‘The Public Advertiser’, 4 September 1762, and on ‘The Posts’, 7 September 1762: “… J. Williams Bookseller next the Mitre Tavern Fleet Street, of whom may be had the Asses of G-t Bri-n the Laird of the Boot – Without & Within & the fall of Mortimer” (BM Satires 3941, 3988, 3877 and 3966).
The composition, lettering and treatment of the asses/horses is close to “John a Boot’s Asses” (BM Satires 3979) and they must have been produced by the same publisher. Both have similarities with the work of Jefferyes Hamett O’Neale; in this case the lion is close to one in the Ladies Amusement (first published by Sayer in 1760).
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http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=3077467&partId=1

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On 26th June 1948, Sir Harold Wernher and his wife Lady Zia, Countess Anastasia Mikhailovna de Torby, hosted a memorable visit by Sir Winston Churchill when 110,000 people gathered to hear him address the crowd and thank them for their support during the Second World War
https://www.lutonhoo.co.uk/history-luton-hoo
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http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/ministry/butemin.htm
By the end of October 1762 the government had completed the peace preliminaries with the French, forcing Prussia and Austria to conclude peace also, on the basis of the status quo of 1756. The terms of the Peace of Paris, proclaimed in March 1763 were a recognition of victory for Britain even though some people were disappointed in the gains. Pitt the Elder was a particularly virulent opponent of the terms of the treaty. Having been absent from parliament during the negotiations – because of ill health – he returned to attack the government in typical theatrical style. Pitt, dressed in black velvet and swathed in flannel, was carried in the arms of a servant to the Bar of the House of Commons. Despite his attire and emaciated appearance, Pitt was able to speak against the peace terms for 3½ hours. In a contemporary poem, The Rodondo, Dalrymple described the occasion:
The groundlings cry alas! poor man!
How ill he is! how pale! how wan!
At length he tries to rise, a hum
Of approbation fills the room.
He bows and tries again; but no,
He finds that standing will not do,
And therefore to complete the farce,
The House cries, ‘Hear him on his a__e!’
He may break off by grief o’ercome,
And grow pathetically dumb!
He next may SWOON and shut his eyes;
A cordial, else the patriot dies!
The cordial comes, he takes it off;
He lives, he lives, I hear him cough …

There were several possible lines of attack on the peace terms and the opposition to the government maximised its opportunity. However, the National Debt made the conclusion of a peace the matter of some urgency. The costs of war did not end with the conclusion of hostilities and there had been no innovation in raising taxes to compensate for the additional expenses of war. The land tax, which had been raised during the war, was to stay at 4/- (four shillings) in the £ instead of being reduced to its usual peacetime level of 3/- in the £. The taxes on malt and beer were continued but Bute decided to increase government revenue by introducing a 4/- per hogshead tax on cider and 4/- a bin on wine. Unfortunately, these taxes were within the jurisdiction of the Excise Service, which was hated: no other form of taxation was so likely to lead to massive opposition. Even worse
⦁ Sir Francis Dashwood, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, was possibly the least competent minister ever to hold the post and clearly did not understand the figures with which he had to work
⦁ no-one seems to have worked out the anticipated yield of the new tax and therefore its imposition could not be justified on the grounds of it being vital to the economy
⦁ the affairs of every apple grower in the West Country would have to be investigated if the tax was to be collected
⦁ the number of government agents would have had to increase enormously for the tax to be collected. The government was accused of using the tax as a means of increasing its power and influence through nepotism
The government fought for the tax in order to save face; the parliamentary opposition attacked it in order to gain popular support. It was at this time that the myth emerged of the king and Bute plotting to subvert the constitution and introduce a despotism. The opposition used
⦁ Bute’s Scottish ancestry
⦁ his name (the 1745 ⦁ Jacobite rising has been in favour of returning the Stuart royal family to the throne of Britain) and
⦁ his closeness to the Queen Mother (rumours were rife that they were lovers)
to blackguard him. Although the Bill passed through parliament, the opposition played on the discontent of the general public.
The City of London petitioned both Houses of Parliament against the legislation; when these petitions were ignored, the king was petitioned directly, to refuse to sign the Bill. Riots broke out and there were hangings of effigies of Bute – mainly boots. Politicians were stoned in the streets and the mob smashed the windows in Bute’s house.
The king hoped that Bute would ride out the storm but the Prime Minister was unable to take any more criticism and personal attacks. Bute resigned on 8 April 1763 and was succeeded as PM by George Grenville. Bute remained a friend of the king, continuing to advise him until George III broke with him in 1766.
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But back to the “Treaty of Paris, 1763.”
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1760, Quebec captured.
Creditors were beginning to doubt Great Britain’s ability to pay back the loans it had floated on financial markets. In addition, British King George II had died in 1760, and his successor George III was more amenable to ending the war..
June 1762
British Prime Minister Lord Bute continued secret and informal talks with French diplomat Étienne-François de Stainville, duc de Choiseul, and they came to an unofficial agreement in June, 1762. Bute promised fairly generous terms, and the two countries agreed to an exchange of ambassadors in September.
August 1762
Havana captured from Spain.
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September 1762
By the time the formal negotiations began, the situation had changed. News had reached Europe of the British capture of Havana, and with it the Spanish colony of Cuba. Spanish King Charles III refused to agree to a treaty that would require Spain to cede Cuba, but the British Parliament would never ratify a treaty that did not reflect British territorial gains made during the war.
Facing this dilemma, French negotiator Choiseul proposed a solution that redistributed American territory between France, Spain and Great Britain. Under Choiseul’s plan, Britain would gain all French territory east of the Mississippi, while Spain would retain Cuba in exchange for handing Florida over to Great Britain. French territories west of the Mississippi would become Spanish, along with the port of New Orleans. In return for these cessions, along with territory in India, Africa, and the Mediterranean island of Minorca, France would regain the Caribbean islands that British forces had captured during the war. The British Government also promised to allow French Canadians to freely practice Catholicism and provided for French fishing rights off Newfoundland.
French diplomat Étienne-François de Stainville, duc de Choiseul
Choiseul preferred to keep the small Caribbean islands of Martinique, Guadeloupe, and St. Lucia rather than hold on to the vast territory stretching from Louisiana to Canada. This decision was motivated by the fact that the islands’ sugar industry was enormously profitable. In contrast, Canada had been a drain on the French treasury. The loss of Canada, while lamentable to French officials, made sense from a mercantile perspective.
November 3, 1762.
The diplomats completed their negotiations and signed the preliminary Treaty of Paris.Spanish and French negotiators also signed the Treaty of San Ildefonso at the same time, which confirmed the cession of French Louisiana to Spain.
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December 9, 1762
http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1754-1790/member/pitt-william-1708-78
In the autumn of 1762 Newcastle and Cumberland tried to secure Pitt’s support for their opposition to the peace preliminaries. Pitt professed his willingness ‘to concur in measures with the Duke of Newcastle’, expressed himself strongly against Bute, but made it clear that he would not be used merely to bring Newcastle back into office.28 He himself ‘would accept of no office whilst the King held the opinion he had conceived of him’. When it came to discussing in concrete terms how the Opposition was to be conducted, Pitt was evasive, said he ‘must do it in his own way’, and no agreement had been reached when the peace preliminaries came before the House on 9 Dec. 1762. In the middle of the debate Pitt, who had been ill with the gout, made a characteristically flamboyant and theatrical entry.
The House was alarmed by a shout from without [wrote Horace Walpole29]. The doors opened, and at the head of a large acclaiming concourse was seen Mr. Pitt borne in the arms of his servants, who, setting him down within the bar, he crawled by the help of a crutch and with the assistance of some few friends to his seat … He was dressed in black velvet, his legs and thighs wrapped in flannel, his feet covered with buskins of black cloth, and his hands with thick gloves.
His speech lasted three and a half hours and was moderate in tone. He criticized the articles which related to the Newfoundland fisheries, the return to Spain of Havana and to France of Martinique and Guadeloupe, and hinted that had the war been continued another year France would have been stripped of all her colonial possessions. He condemned the abandonment of Prussia, contrasted the Franco-Spanish alliance with Britain’s isolation, and declared ‘we ought to have made a family compact with the King of Prussia’. He spoke, wrote Walpole, ‘in so low and faint a voice that it was almost impossible to hear him … this was not a day on which his genius thundered’. ‘He never made so long or so bad a speech’, wrote Lord Barrington;30 and Harris: ‘All people I spoke to of all sides confessed a languor and tediousness in this speech, to which they had not been accustomed.’ Perhaps its most important sentence was his disavowal of any connexion with Newcastle, and his declaration ‘that he should attend Parliament very little this session’.
In fact Pitt did not attend the House again until March 1763. Meanwhile the Opposition, disjointed and leaderless, floundered on as best they could without him. ‘We all agree’, wrote Newcastle, ‘that nothing can be done without Mr. Pitt.’ Pitt told Devonshire he would attend ‘upon any national or constitutional points, but to enter into direct opposition was what he could not do’. Still, on 8 Mar. he dined with the Opposition leaders: ‘Their countenances are quite cleared up’, wrote Rigby, ‘since they have put themselves under Pitt’s management.’31 In August 1763 Bute persuaded the King to open negotiations with Pitt, and at his audience of 27 Aug. Pitt advised the King to form a new ministry from the Opposition.
http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1754-1790/member/pitt-william-1708-78
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February 10, 1763
Although British King George III and his ministers were in favor of the treaty, it was unpopular with the British public. However, the treaty contained enough concessions to war hawks that the British Parliament ratified the Treaty of Paris by a majority of 319 to 64, and the treaty went into effect on February 10, 1763.
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/treaty-of-paris

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Pitt returned to parliament to deliver a scathing, three-hour speech attaching the proposals: the performance was enshrined in Dalrymple’s poem, The Rodondo
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/pms/chatham.html
https://www.rookebooks.com/product?prod_id=16069
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https://books.google.com/books?id=eVGqCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT22&lpg=PT22&dq=Dalrymple’s+The+Rodondo&source=bl&ots=TrXGlan190&sig=vkX2LXrCUML3YrtpvNsdwo-rPK4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwig3NuDsNHYAhVNGt8KHUrDDioQ6AEITTAI#v=onepage&q=Dalrymple’s%20The%20Rodondo&f=false
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