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Shawnee Hostages

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When:
December 7, 2015 all-day
2015-12-07T00:00:00-05:00
2015-12-08T00:00:00-05:00
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SHAWNEE CHIEFS HELD AS GOOD FAITH HOSTAGES

Compiled by Jim Moyer 9/25/2016, post 9/27/16

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After the Battle of Point Pleasant, the Treaty of Camp Charlotte (just south of the center of Ohio) agreed the Shawnee would provide some of their own people as hostage to be held in Williamsburg VA as a symbol of good faith in keeping the peace.

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These hostages were seen in Winchester VA by a traveling Englishman recording it in his diary.

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Fort Loudoun Description

But first, this eye witness writes about Winchester and Fort Loudoun too.

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  1. Wednesday, December 7th, 1774. Went to Winchester.
    It is one of the largest towns I have seen in the Colony,
    the capital of this Colony. Regularly laid out in squares,
    the buildings are of limestone. Two Churches, one Eng-
    lish and one Dutch, but the Dutch Church is not finished.
    General Braddock built a stockade Fort here, in the year
    1755, but it is now demolished.

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Incorrect year stated.

The Fort Loudoun construction began 18 May 1756 and went on for 2 years and sporadically if necessity dictated after that —- not 1755.

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Stockade is incorrect.

The original walls of Fort Loudoun were 1 foot wide hewn squared off logs placed sideways with dirt and stone and rock filled in between 2 walls.  3 years later a stockade was erected for prisoner in the War for Independence.  This may be why a stockade model was displayed for years at the Washington Office Museum on Cork and Braddock.

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Demolished?

1774 is 15 years after the last work on building it. As a practical matter, yes it was demolished. Some of the barracks were still standing. And maybe all the walls were taken down to be used as building material for homes nearby. But perhaps the outline of some of the wall was there,  because whatever existed was noticeable enough to be drawn prominently by a Hessian prisoner held at Fort Loudoun 3 years later in 1777.

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BACK TO THOSE SHAWNEE HOSTAGES

See pictures below of Shawnee 60+ years later matching this written description by Nicholas Cresswell visiting Winchester VA in his diary entry 7 December 1774:


  1. Saw four Indian Chiefs of the Shawnee Nation, who have
    been at War with the Virginians this summer, but have
    made peace with them, and they are sending these people
    to Williamsburg as hostages. They are tall, manly, well-
    shaped men, of a Copper colour with black hair, quick pierc-
    ing eyes, and good features. They have rings of silver
    in their nose and bobs to them which hang over their upper
    lip. Their ears are cut from the tips two thirds of the
    way round and the piece extended with brass wire till it
  2. touches their shoulders, in this part they hang a thin silver
    plate, wrought in flourishes about three inches diameter,
    with plates of silver round their arms and in the hair, which
    is all cut off except a long lock on the top of the head.
    They are in white men’s dress, except breeches which they
    refuse to wear, instead of which they have a girdle round
    them with a piece of cloth drawn through their legs and
    turned over the girdle, and appears like a short apron be-
    fore and behind. All the hair is pulled from their eye-
    brows and eyelashes and their faces painted in different
    parts with Vermilion. They walk remarkably straight and
    cut a grotesque appearance in this mixed dress.

See pages 49-50

Text version:

https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924013972009;page=root;view=plaintext;size=100;seq=69

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See pages 49-50

Open book image:

https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924013972009;view=2up;seq=70

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Wiki entry on

Nicholas Cresswell

(5 January 1750 – 26 July 1804) :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Cresswell

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Portraits OF SHAWNEE 60+ YEARS LATER

These portraits are NOT the 4 Shawnee who came through Winchester VA that 7 December 1774.

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But these portraits are shown here to show the nose ring and hair and the earrings as described in 1774 by Nicholas Cresswell, quoted above.

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shawnee-chief-1

Kishkalwa, a Shawnee Chief, signatory to the 1825 treaty at St Louis. Portrait by Charles Bird King (1785 – 1862).

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In 1836, Kishkalwa was between 85 and 90 years old, still the head of the Shawnee nation and living on the Kansas River, in the neighborhood of the Sabine.  See Source.

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If he was 85 in 1836, then in 1774 at the time of the Battle of Point Pleasant and the subsequent Treaty of Camp Charlotte, he would have been 23 years old.

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shawnee-chief-charles-bird-king-kishkalwa-a-shawnee-chief

Painted in 1825 by Charles Bird King. See Source.   And was printed in McKenney and Hall’s “History of the Indian Tribes of North America,” published from 1836 to 1844.

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Poster available at:

http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Kishkalwa-a-Shawnee-Chief-Posters_i9119424_.htm?stp=true

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See Biography  of Kishkalwa.

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Here are 2 more Shawnee Chief portraits by another famous artist, George Caitlin.

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Again, look at how the images still match Nicholas Cresswell’s description of seeing the Shawnee in Winchester VA on 7 December 1774.

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shawnee-chief-2

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George Catlin
Lay-láw-she-kaw, Goes Up the River, an Aged Chief, 1830
Shawnee
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.

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shawneed-chief-3

George Catlin
Ten-sqúat-a-way, The Open Door, Known as The Prophet, Brother of Tecumseh, 1830
Shawnee
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr.

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Portraits found in this link:

http://www.americanart.si.edu/exhibitions/online/catlinclassroom/catlin_browsepagetribe.cfm?StartRow=201

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More George Caitlin links:

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http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/george-catlin-american-indian-portraits/exhibition.php
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http://www.georgecatlin.org/search
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NAMES OF THE 4 SHAWNEE

who were seen in Winchester VA

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On 7 December 1774, in Winchester VA, Nicholas Cresswell observes:

Saw four Indian Chiefs of the Shawnee Nation, who have
been at War with the Virginians this summer, but have
made peace with them, and they are sending these people
to Williamsburg as hostages

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We learn their names from the Pennsylvania Gazette 4 January 1775 in a footnote provided by Founders Online for a letter William Crawford writes to George Washington 14 November 1774:

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On 17 Dec.

Col. Angus McDonald arrived in Williamsburg with the four hostages and their interpreter.

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“Three of them are Warriors, viz.

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Imcatewhawa, or the Black Wolf;  [our note: one of 19 children of Cornstalk ]

Wissecapoway, or Captain Morgan;  [our note: one of 19 children of Cornstalk]

Genusa, or the Judge;

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and the other is a young Man, called Neawah, who is the Snake’s Son, a principal Warrior of that Nation”

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(Pennsylvania Gazette [Philadelphia], 4 Jan. 1775)

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An Englishman who saw the four hostages in Winchester in December on their way to Williamsburg described them in detail as “tall, manly, well-shaped men, of a Copper colour with black hair, quick piercing eyes, and good features. They were dressed as white men except for loincloths instead of breeches which they refuse to wear” (Cresswell, Journal, 49–50). The Point Pleasant victory kept the frontiers relatively free from Indian threats during the early years of the Revolution.

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The above is a Footnote to a letter from William Crawford to George Washington. The Footnote is research provided by Founders Online.

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The letter itself that William Crawford writes has a lot packed in it.

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William Crawford is updating George Washington on the events following the Battle of Point Pleasant and the results of the Camp Charlotte Treaty.

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William Crawford has a quite a story himself.  And the place he is writing from, Stewart’s Crossing is one of the points along Braddock’s Expedition in 1755, some 19 years earlier.

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Source:

William Crawford at Stewarts Crossing (PA)

writes to George Washington 14 November 1774:

http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/02-10-02-0122

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The 4 Shawnee Arrive in Williamsburg VA

17 December 1774

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Good article on the Shawnee in Williamsburg. More on the plot of “So Far from Scioto.” Excerpt from article:

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In 1774 Virginia’s royal governor Lord Dunmore went to war with the Shawnee, which concluded at the Battle of Point Pleasant.  

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During the peace negotiations, the Shawnee agreed to send four headmen to Williamsburg as a demonstration of their commitment to the peace.  These four Shawnee were considered “diplomatic hostages” of the colony and came as part of the “peace bond.”  

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They were not viewed as captives or prisoners—they were royal guests of Dunmore, and the governor hosted them as foreign dignitaries.  

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They attended Williamsburg dinners and a Palace Ball, sailed with Dunmore to Norfolk and attended the theater.  Parades were held on their behalf and they socialized with Virginia’s gentry.  Meanwhile, a formal treaty was planned for the spring of 1775. 

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http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/143854

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LATER ON IN WILLIAMSBURG

On January 19, 1775, the royal governor of Virginia, John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, stood at the pinnacle of his popularity.

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Fresh from his October 1774 victory over the Shawnee at the Battle of Point Pleasant on the Ohio River, Dunmore opened the Palace in Williamsburg for a grand ball celebrating the Queen’s birthday and the christening of his newest daughter, Virginia.

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[Our Note: Queen Charlotte came from Mecklenberg in the area of what was to become Germany.  Vandals were thought to be her ancestors and so a colony of Vandalia was being planned of which our Captain George Mercer, George Washington’s aid de camp was to become Governor.]

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Within six months of that Thursday-evening gala, however, the movement toward independence and the actions of Patrick Henry would force Dunmore and his family to flee the Palace as the royal government of the Old Dominion collapsed at their heels. . . .

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… June 29, 1776 elected Patrick Henry as the first governor of the independent Commonwealth of Virginia

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Source:

http://www.varsitytutors.com/earlyamerica/early-america-review/volume-8/the-proclamation-against-patrick-henry

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Even Shenandoah County was named Dunmore County. But not for long.

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CHAIN OF EVENTS

Leading to the appearance of these

4 Shawnee in Winchester VA 7 December 1774

on their way to Williamsburg 17 December 1774.

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The invasion of the White Europeans was not going to stop. Land grabs, misunderstandings, violence, revenge, followed by further retaliation constitutes the chain of events here.

 

INDIAN RESERVE 1763

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Proclamation of 1763

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After the expensive French and Indian War, England thought to reduce future costs of defense by ensuring a peaceful frontier.  So they drew a line its colonists cannot pass.

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From George Washington on down, no one thought that line of 1763 was going to stay.And in 1768 they were right.

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The Cherokee ceded land south of the Ohio in Treaty of Hard Labour and the Six Nations at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix gave away land they really didn’t own or live on.  

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The nations of Shawnee and Mingo, continued to inhabit that land sold out by the Iroquois, the Six Nation in the New York area.  

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The Whites found it convenient to believe the Six Nations controlled the land the Shawnee and Mingo and other nations inhabited.  The Six Nations found it convenient too.

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SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Reserve_(1763

So, fast forward to 1774.

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The Yellow Creek massacre was a brutal killing of several Mingo Indians by Virginia frontiersmen on April 30, 1774. The atrocity occurred across from the mouth of the Yellow Creek on the upper Ohio River in the Ohio Country, near the current site of the Mountaineer Casino, Racetrack and Resort

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The Whites were still crossing the Ohio River.

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The massacre of the Sluss family occured at Sharon Springs in what was then Fincastle County(now Bland)near the present village of Ceres, Virginia, August 02, 1774.

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Logan, however, was not kept from his vengeance, Shawnee and Seneca-Cayuga leaders did not stop him from attacking British colonists living south and east of the Ohio River.

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Logan took approximately two dozen warriors to seek revenge on the colonists in western Pennsylvania. There his followers killed thirteen settlers before returning back west of the Ohio River.

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Captain John Connolly, commander of Fort Pitt, immediately prepared to attack the Ohio Country American Indians. John Murray, Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, offered his colony’s assistance. Dunmore hoped to prevent Pennsylvania’s expansion into modern-day West Virginia and Kentucky. He wished to place Virginia militiamen in these regions. He also hoped to open these lands to white settlement.

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In August 1774, Pennsylvania militia entered the Ohio Country and quickly destroyed seven Seneca-Cayuga villages, which the Seneca-Cayuga had abandoned as the soldiers approached.

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At the same time, Lord Dunmore sent one thousand men to the Kanawha River in modern-day West Virginia to build a fort and to attack the Shawnee.

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Cornstalk, who had experienced a change of heart toward the white colonists as the soldiers invaded the Ohio Country, sent nearly one thousand warriors to drive Dunmore’s force from the region. The forces met on October 10, 1774, at what became known as the Battle of Point Pleasant. After several hours of intense fighting, the British drove Cornstalk’s followers north of the Ohio River.

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Dunmore, with a large force of his own, quickly followed the Shawnee across the river into the Ohio Country. Upon nearing the Shawnee villages on the Pickaway Plains north of modern-day Chillicothe, Ohio, and near what is now Circleville, Ohio, Dunmore stopped. From his encampment named Camp Charlotte, Dunmore requested that the Shawnee come to him and discuss a peace treaty.

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The Shawnee agreed, but while negotiations were under way, Colonel Andrew Lewis and a detachment of Virginia militia that Dunmore had left behind at Point Pleasant crossed the Ohio River and destroyed several Shawnee villages. Fearing that Dunmore intended to destroy them, the Shawnees immediately agreed to terms before more blood was shed.

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SOURCE:   http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Lord_Dunmore’s_War_and_the_Battle_of_Point_Pleasant?rec=514

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This conflict led to Dunmore’s War in 1774, ended by the Treaty of Camp Charlotte where these tribes agreed to accept the Ohio River as the new boundary.

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Restrictions on settlement were to become a flash point in the American Revolutionary War, following the Henderson Purchase of much of Kentucky from the Cherokee in 1775.

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The renegade Cherokee chief Dragging Canoe did not agree to the sale, nor did the Royal Government in London, which forbade settlement in this region. As an act of Revolution in defiance of the crown, white pioneer settlers began pouring into Kentucky in 1776, opposed by Dragging Canoe in the Cherokee–American wars, which continued until 1794.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Reserve_(1763)

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HISTORICAL MARKERS for Treaty of Camp Charlotte

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“By the terms of the Treaty of Camp Charlotte (19 October 1774), the Shawnee agreed to cease hunting south of the Ohio and to discontinue harassment of travellers on the River. Although Chief Logan said he would cease fighting, he would not attend the formal peace talks. After the Mingo refused to accept the terms, Major William Crawford attacked their village of Seekunk (Salt Lick Town, near present Steubenville, Ohio). His force of 240 men destroyed the village.[15]

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Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Dunmore%27s_War

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And see William Crawford’s letter to George Washington about that attack

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This treaty stipulated the Shawnee would provide some of its own people to be held as hostage as a show of good faith to keep the peace.

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This is the provision that led to our Englishman

being an eyewitness

of those 4 Shawnee coming through Winchester VA

on 7 December 1774

and who reached Williamsburg VA

on 17 December 1774 to be held hostage there.

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This is not a still photo. Navigate with your Mouse or Touchscreen to see the site of the Treaty of Camp Charlotte in Ohio.

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Remarkable Ohio site

Shows pictures of the memorial site and its historical markers

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http://www.remarkableohio.org/index.php?/category/1220

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HMDB site

Historical marker Treaty of Camp Charlotte

Longitude latitude 39° 32.287′ N, 82° 50.616′ W

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http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=13499

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WAYMARKING site

 

Side A : “Treaty of Camp Charlotte”
In an effort to maintain peace with Native Americans, the British imposed the Proclamation Line of 1763, which prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. Some settlers did not recognize British authority and continued to move westward. Virginia Governor Lord Dunmore, realizing that peace with Native Americans was improbable, amassed troops and headed west, camping at the Hocking River to meet with a unit commanded by Andrew Lewis. En route, Lewis’s troops were attacked on October 10, 1774 at present day Point Pleasant, West Virginia, by a force of Delaware and Shawnee led by Cornstalk.

 

Side B : “”
After intense battle, the Native Americans retreated north across the Ohio River to villages on the Pickaway Plains. At this point, Dunmore headed to the Shawnee villages to negotiate peace and set up camp at this site. The resulting Treaty of Camp Charlotte ended “Dunmore’s War” and stipulated that the Indians give up rights to land south of the Ohio River and allow boats to travel on the river undisturbed. The Treaty of Camp Charlotte established the Ohio River as Virginia’s boundary line, aiding in the settlement of Kentucky.

 

http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM45GK_Treaty_of_Camp_Charlotte_Marker_6_65

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HMDB  site

This one shows the 1928 monument text:

 

Inscription. Near this spot the famous treaty was made between Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia and Chief Cornstalk of the Shawnees and Allied Tribes in October 1774.

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http://www.hmdb.org/Marker.asp?Marker=13500

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NO PHYSICAL RECORD OF THE TREATY

No record of the original treaty has been found.

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“Rick Hartinger, past chapter president and project coordinator of The Camp Charlotte Cahpter of the Ohio Society Sons of the Revolution  . . . has compiled about 3 years worth of research into this event, Oct 19, 1774 and was basically held as an informal ceremony . . . “The original Camp Charlotte Treaty may be lost to time,” Hartinger said. “I wanted to personally examine it.”  

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He soon learned, though, that no one seemed to know the treaty’s physical whereabouts, and as an independent researcher, he began a quest to obtain information. 

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The early volumes of the Ohio Archeological Society published in 1922 revealed a potential clue. In one report, it suggested that Lord Dunmore placed the treaty into his saddlebags after the successful conclusion of the event and rode off headed back to Williamsburg, the capital of Virginia at the time.  . . .

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Hartinger met up with two of the nation’s leading authorities and expert scholars on Lord Dunmore — Dr. James Glanville from Virginia Tech University and Dr. Pete Wrike from the University of Virginia”

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October 9, 2014 Circleville Herald article

Source:

http://www.circlevilleherald.com/community/sar-invites-public-to-honor-anniversary-of-camp-charlotte-treaty/article_e0276624-dfff-54ee-9367-8b666df19e48.html

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BATTLE OF POINT PLEASANT

Read all about this battle by clicking on the icons on this map.

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This is the battle that led to the Treaty at Camp Charlotte,

which led to 4 Shawnee good faith hostages

showing up in Winchester VA,

who then went to Williamsburg

as “ambassadors” of good faith.

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END OF THE STORY

Below are related links to pursue more.

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RELATED LINKS

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Report of a Treaty with the Western  Indians

Conducted at Pittsburgh September 12–October 21, 1775
and now for the first time published
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Commissioners: from the Colonial Congress —

Lewis Morris, James Wilson, and Thomas Walker;

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from the Virginia House of Burgesses —

Thomas Walker, James Wood, Andrew Lewis, John Walker,  and Andrew Stephen
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Reprinted from “The Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 1775-  1777” edited and annotated by Reuben Gold Thwaites LL. D., and Louise Phelps Kellogg, Ph. D., of the  staff of the Wisconsin Historical Society]
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MADISON Wisconsin Historical Society    February. 1908

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https://archive.org/stream/reportatreatywi00wiscgoog#page/n6/mode/2up

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CORNSTALK BIO IN 1850

Published by  Reverend William Henry Foote

Southern Literary Messenger
Volume 16, Issue 9, pp. 533-540, Richmond, Virginia. 1850

Transcribed by Valerie F. Crook, 1998

http://www.newrivernotes.com/topical_books_1850_virginia_cornstalk_shawneechief.htm

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SHAWNEE DEMOGRAPHICS

Shawnee divisions and population:

Shawnee Indian Divisions

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SO FAR FROM SCIOTO

Many hundreds of tourists visiting Virginia’s historic revolutionary city of Colonial Williamsburg have benefitted from a live presentation of “So Far From Scioto,” a story that chronicles the lives of three Shawnee emissaries who came to Williamsburg in 1774 as part of an agreement with Lord Dunmore to cease raids on the Ohio Frontier.

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Source:  http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2009/12/23/colonial-williamsburg-embraces-american-indian-presence-83578

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CORNSTALK’S CHILDREN

Lots of references and sources listed and particularly a list of all of Corstalk’s children

http://www.thefullwiki.org/cornstalk

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GOVERNOR’S BALL

Good article on the Shawnee in Williamsburg. More on the plot of “So Far from Scioto.” Excerpt from article:

In 1774 Virginia’s royal governor Lord Dunmore went to war with the Shawnee, which concluded at the Battle of Point Pleasant.  During the peace negotiations, the Shawnee agreed to send four headmen to Williamsburg as a demonstration of their commitment to the peace.  These four Shawnee were considered “diplomatic hostages” of the colony and came as part of the “peace bond.”  They were not viewed as captives or prisoners—they were royal guests of Dunmore, and the governor hosted them as foreign dignitaries.  They attended Williamsburg dinners and a Palace Ball, sailed with Dunmore to Norfolk and attended the theater.  Parades were held on their behalf and they socialized with Virginia’s gentry.  Meanwhile, a formal treaty was planned for the spring of 1775. 

http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/143854

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The Governor’s Palace, Williamsburg, Virginia

 Published 1900

https://archive.org/stream/governorspalacew00slsn#page/n1/mode/2up

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GOVERNOR’S BALL

On January 19, 1775, the royal governor of Virginia, John Murray, fourth Earl of Dunmore, stood at the pinnacle of his popularity. Fresh from his October 1774 victory over the Shawnee at the Battle of Point Pleasant on the Ohio River, Dunmore opened the Palace in Williamsburg for a grand ball celebrating the queen’s birthday and the christening of his newest daughter, Virginia. Within six months of that Thursday-evening gala, however, the movement toward independence and the actions of Patrick Henry would force Dunmore and his family to flee the Palace as the royal government of the Old Dominion collapsed at their heels. . . . June 29, 1776 elected Patrick Henry as the first governor of the independent Commonwealth of Virginia

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http://www.varsitytutors.com/earlyamerica/early-america-review/volume-8/the-proclamation-against-patrick-henry

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PROCLAMATION AGAINST PATRICK HENRY

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At a council, held at the Palace, May 2, 1775. Present his Excellency the Governor, Thomas Nelson, Ricard Corein, William Byrd, Ralph Wormeley, Junior, John Camm, clerk, and John Page Esquire …

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https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbpe.1780130c/

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