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Jan
02

TREATY OF PARIS 10 FEBRUARY 1763

By
When:
February 10, 2015 all-day
2015-02-10T00:00:00-05:00
2015-02-11T00:00:00-05:00

This world wide war, known here as the French and Indian War, although technically ended,  really had no neat beginning, middle or end, but was a continuum in the ever White westward expansion going on the continent.

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Last update by Jim Moyer 1/14/2018, 5/31/2018

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First, Beginning and Ending Dates:

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START of the Seven Year War

The actual war spanned a longer period.

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28 May 1754 — Usually the Jummonville incident is the unofficial start date

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Declaration of War dates:

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17 May 1756 Britain declares war on France, almost a year after the Braddock Defeat

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9 June 1756 France declares official war on Britain

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August 15, 1756 Washington in Winchester VA gets word of declaration

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4 January 1762 Britain declares war on Spain

18 January 1762 Spain declares war back on Britain

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ENDING of the French and Indian War

Treaties ending the war on these dates:

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22 May 1762 — Peace of Hamburg between Prussia, Mecklenburg and Sweden.

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10 February 1763 —  Treaty of Paris signed by  Great BritainFrance and Spain, with Portugal

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15 February 1763 — The Treaty of Hubertusburg (Frieden von Hubertusburg) signed by PrussiaAustriaSaxony

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This is the war this phrase began:

The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire

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George Macartney wrote in 1773, in the wake of the territorial expansion that followed Britain’s victory in the Seven Years’ War, of “this vast empire on which the sun never sets, and whose bounds nature has not yet ascertained.”.

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Source: Macartney, George (1773). An Account of Ireland in 1773 by a Late Chief Secretary of that Kingdom. p. 55.; cited in Kenny, Kevin (2006). Ireland and the British Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 72,fn.22. ISBN 0-19-925184-3.

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This war was the last war Native American nations had France as an ally.

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Now about the Treaty of Paris ending the war in 1763

and about Lord Bute

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Lord Bute 1713-1792.

Last night, 01/13/2018,  a group of us went to see the movie, The Darkest Hour, a movie showing how Winston Churchill assumed the Prime Minister position mere days before England was about to witness the destruction of its entire 300,000 man Army cornered at Dunkirk, France.
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Dunkirk.
This famous town fought over in the 1600s, a pirate base for corsairs, was sold by King Charles II to France 17 October 1662. This is the Same Charles II who paid off another debt to create Pennsylvania in 1681 and the 12 mile circle he gave to his brother James II who had defeated the Dutch and Swedes in New Castle Delaware.
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And this brings us back to Lord Bute.

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From Wikipedia – 3rd Earl of Bute by Sir Joshua Reynolds

He was blamed for giving back conquests
in the Peace of 1763, the end of the French and Indian War.
But one major feature of that peace treaty required France to dismantle any fortifications in Dunkirk, long considered a launching base to invade England.
https://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/treaty-of-paris
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William Pitt, the Elder, returned to parliament to deliver a scathing, three-hour speech attacking the proposals of this give away Peace.

They gave back the hard fought conquest of Cuba,
and Manilla Phillipines, the slave base at the mouth of Senegal in Africa and allowed the French to continue commerce in the St Lawrence seaway and in India.

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/pms/chatham.html

http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1754-1790/member/pitt-william-1708-78
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How is Lord Bute related to our area of Winchester VA?

Lord Bute was friend to the son of King George II
who Frederick Co VA is named after.
Lord Bute was also friend to “Frederick’s” wife Augusta.
Both Frederick and Augusta counties were created in 1738
to honor King George II’s son and wife.
Then he was friend to Frederick’s son, future King George III,
while being falsely accused of “relations” with Augusta.
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See Origins of Frederick County and Augusta County:

Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales and Frederick Co VA


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Lord Bute introduced to the young future King George III the book, The Patriot King by Bolingbroke – a person our 2nd President John Adams read at least 5 times.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_St_John,_1st_Viscount_Bolingbroke#Impact
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Sources: http://www.historyhouse.co.uk/articles/jackboot.html

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Lord Bute is also the origin of Jack Boot, symbol of oppression.
The political cartoon shows a BIG JACK BOOT.

The public thought him to be like a Rasputin controlling the ear of the Czar. He also fired a whole slew of opponents much like the Nixon firings in the Saturday Night Massacre of the Watergate inquiries.

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Sources:
http://www.historyhouse.co.uk/articles/jackboot.html
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https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8JDpO5KNSUkC&vq=jackboot&pg=PA486&hl=en#v=onepage&q=jack%20boot&f=false
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Riots broke out and there were hangings of effigies of Bute – mainly boots. Politicians were stoned in the streets and the mob smashed the windows in Bute’s house.

http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/ministry/butemin.htm
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https://books.google.com/books?id=3TtaCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=Winston+Churchill+on+lord+bute&source=bl&ots=JAf0w9QLFy&sig=PcEF3HmzrUoAgd0X_QpK7pTEyww&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiLvMSltdfYAhVRRN8KHe8jDDQQ6AEISTAI#v=onepage&q=Winston%20Churchill%20on%20lord%20bute&f=false
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And he was only Prime Minister for almost a year, 26 May 1762 to 8 April 1763.
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But he ended the war working privately with French diplomat Étienne-François de Stainville, duc de Choiseul because England’s National Debt had doubled and could they realistically control all their new conquests?
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For being a Jack Boot, many thought he had undue influence on King George III, but many also called Lord Bute an appeaser as Winston Churchill did in his review of history.
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Open link below, press Ctrl F, type: Bute sent the Duke of Bedford
https://archive.org/stream/ahistoryoftheenglishspeakingpeoples1/A-History-of-the-English-Speaking-Peoples-03-The-Age-of-Revolution_-_Winston-Churchill_djvu.txt
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Lord Bute was a Good friend to Samuel Johnson, author of the first comprehensive dictionary of English words in 1755.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Johnson#A_Dictionary_of_the_English_Language
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Lord Bute and Samuuel Johnson often met at Lord Bute’s home, called Lutton Hoo,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luton_Hoo
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Boswell, who wrote a book about Samuel Johson. This book book was held by our Captain Mercer’s Dad who built a library in Marlborough VA, a library so vast, that later was given honor by George Mason University naming its college library, the Mercer Library.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/40255/40255-h/40255-h.htm#Page_198
https://library.gmu.edu/locations/mercer
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And before the appeasement in the peace treaty?
Lord Bute is in big trouble.
Lord Bute holds the reins on the British Lion bitted and bridled
is depicted as one of The Asses of Great Britain.
http://www.ouramericanrevolution.org/index.cfm/object/view/ob0160
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Another interesting side note in that political cartoon:
Three Cherokee Chiefs visited London June 18, 1762
looking for help.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Timberlake#Visits_to_London
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Lord Bute was there with King George III to see these Cherokee who was escorted by Timberlake who along with Adam Stephen helped build a fort during the earlier Anglo-Cherokee Wars.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timberlake_Expedition
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But that’s another story.
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Some Provisions of the Treaty

February 10, 1763: Treaty of Paris

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All French possessions east of the Mississippi, except New Orleans, are given to the British.

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All French possessions west of the Mississippi are given to the Spanish.

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Spain gives Florida to the British.

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Britain restored the captured Manila and Havana to Spain, and Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Gorée, and the Indian factories to France.

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France loses all of Canada except the islands  Saint Pierre and Miquelon  to dry the fish as France retains fishing rights off Newfoundland.  To this day France still owns those 2 islands off the Canadian coast.

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Boundary drawn to prevent colonists moving west and thus prevent costly Indian Wars.  This line was drawn months after in October of 1763 just before Pontiac capitulated.  See Washington’s letter about ignoring the Proclamation of 1763 line  (LINK COMING)

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TIMELINE leading to PONTIAC’S WAR

See Treaty of Paris 1763 February 10, 1763

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The treaty ended the war between the Whites and even tried to draw a line the Whites would not migrate past, but the colonists ignored this line.   And so the Native Americans resumed the fight.

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April 27, 1763: Indian Wars  Pontiac, the Ottowa Chief, proposes a coalition of Ottowas, Potawatomies and Hurons for the purpose of attacking Detroit.

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May 9, 1763: Battle of Detroit  Pontiac’s forces lay siege to Detroit. That summer, his allies destroy forts at Venango, Le Boeuf and Presque Isle

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July 1763: Smallpox Event.   Men of the garrison at Fort Pitt infect besieging chiefs with blankets from the smallpox hospital. Soon faced with an epidemic, the Indians retreat.  See letter implicating Jeffrey Amherst who became famous in the  Seige of Louisbourg in 1758  and is why many place names celebrate that victory such as a street in Winchester VA or Amherst University in Massachusetts.  But now this name is being challenged everywhere because of Amherst’s letter to Bouquet  June 24th 1763 .

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October 7, 1763: The Royal Proclamation of 1763, by King George III .  See Washington’s letter about ignoring the Proclamation of 1763 line  (LINK COMING)

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October 31, 1763: Pontiac capitulates at Detroit.  Hostile actions abate temporarily only to resume.  See the continuum of this war of westward expansion.

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