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May
04

Winchester VA established

By
When:
April 20, 2017 all-day
2017-04-20T00:00:00-04:00
2017-04-21T00:00:00-04:00
Where:
20 N Loudoun St
Winchester, VA 22601
USA

Click on OK on map.

Hover cursor over map for magnifying glass to appear.

Click on magnifying glass in bottom right corner

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Compiled, written by Jim Moyer 5/4/2017, 5/5/17, 5/7/17, 5/9/2017, 1/22/2019, 2/8/2019, 3/13/2019, 3/19/2019

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Winchester VA is

Founded March 9, 1744

Established  April 20, 1752

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As of this writing 5/7/2017 Apple Blossom festival is wrapping up, Scroll down to the section on “Fairs?”

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WHICH DATE IS IT?


1744 or 1752 ?

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Photo by Jim Moyer. Click on Photo to enlarge.

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Visitors will see Founded 1744 on the Welcome sign at Route  50 East,  Millwood Ave.

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Then, at the center of the town they see Established 1752 at both ends of the  Old Town Mall on Loudoun Street, pedestrian mall.

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This open air, walking only mall is on Loudoun Street whose north end is Piccadilly Street and whose south end is Cork. Street.

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Click on Photo to enlarge.

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Frederick County was created out of Orange County in 1738 but by 1744  there was enough development to have their own courthouse, which after a short time on James Wood‘s Glen Burnie, moved very close to where the 1840 Courthouse now stands.

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Source of photo: http://oldtownwinchesterva.com/

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CHRONOLOGY OF

“FOUNDING”  AND  “ESTABLISHED”  DATES


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Garland Quarles detailed a good chronology of Winchester’s origins in 1952, “Streets of Winchester,” later re-published by the Winchester Frederick County Historical Society in a 1996 book, titled, “Winchester Virginia, Streets, Churches, Schools,”  pages 39-45.

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1735

James Wood  states he secured a grant  of 1300 acres in 1735 on the branches of Opequon Creek from the Governor and Council of VA.  – p 39.

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1738

Frederick County was created in 1738

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1743

Five years later the first County Court session with officers was held on this date November 14, 1743.

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Other counties were created like this.  First the county would be created, then its first court session would occur years later after some development occurred.

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1744

In March 9, 1744, James Wood organized the town, not yet officially known as Winchester, but variously first as Opeckon and then as Frederick Town and then as Winchester.

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March 9, 1744

Quarles quotes James Wood: “laid off from the tract of land on which he now dwells at Opeckon.”  This “tract of land” comprises 26 lots.

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Twenty-four of the 26 numbered lots were conveyed to the Justices of the County with the understanding that “they or their assignes, shall within two years of the day of the sale of the said lots, build or cause to be built on each lot one house either framed work or squared logs, dovetailed, at least of the dimension 20 ft. by 16 ft.”  

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The other four unnumbered lots were reserved for public purposes, and on them were ultimately built the courthouse, the jail, the market house and the chapel of the established Church.

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The plat of the development called for two streets running through the said lots of the breadth of thirty-three feet .” 

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The plan for the town was placed in the hands of Morgan Morgan, Marquis Calmes, and William McMachen, three of the justices.   pages 39-41.

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Source:

Garland Quarles detailed a good chronology of Winchester’s origins in 1952, “Streets of Winchester,” later re-published by the Winchester Frederick County Historical Society in a 1996 book, titled, “Winchester Virginia, Streets, Churches, Schools,”  pages 39-45.

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Context:

Quarles quotes James Wood’s wrote he was granted land in 1735 from the Governor and Council . Missing in this reference is the House of Burgesses who did not meet in the year of 1735 ,which is why there is no record of the grant of land to James Wood in the Journals of the House of Burgesses.

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Also Orange County was just created the year before out of Spotsylvania County in 1734, and this Orange County wasn’t divided into Frederick and Augusta Counties “westward of the top of the Blue Ridge of Mountains, “ until November 11, 1738.

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The two streets  Loudoun, and Boscawen were not named until 1758, according to Quarles. p 41.

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February or April 20, 1752?

So what month and date was Winchester VA “established” ?

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Quarles states February, but as you will see it is because the law was printed as February because that month was the start of that session of the House of Burgesses.

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See further below on the 3 readings of the bill that didn’t become law until April 20.  p 42.

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See this link to confirm Februrary 27 was the start of the session of the House of Burgesses and scrolling thru March you will see 3 readings of the bill which then gets approved by the Governor and Council on April 20, 1752.

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And scroll to bottom of page 268 for the law you will see this link shows February because it is the session that started in February.

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ABOUT THE 1752 MAP

SUBMITTED TO THE HOUSE OF BURGESSES


 

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Even though James Wood received a tract granted by the Governor and Council of VA, he knew Lord Fairfax was going to win in court and so he settlled quickly with Lord Fairfax and together in 1752 they presented this map to the House of Burgesses. From Quarles p 42-43. CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE

By the time of this map, overlapping ownership claims were resolved between James Wood  who received a grant from the Governor and Council of VA, and  Lord Fairfax who had his grant from the King by inheritance.

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Joist Hite, however, didn’t want to surrender his claim nor pay Lord Fairfax any quit rent. Law suits on this went on and on until even after Lord Fairfax’s death in 1781, p.6.

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Here is a copy made of the 1752 map presented by both James Wood and Lord Fairfax to have the town of Winchester chartered by the House of Burgesses.  p 43.

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Side detour from discussion on dates:

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Lot 77 is bought by George Washington on 13 May 1753, where in 1756 he puts a blacksmith shop to forge the iron for Fort Loudoun nearby. p.44.

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By the way, many lots were sold on that date of 13 May 1753.  A big day for Clerk of Court James Wood.

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Lot 76 is where a prison sat on what is now the back parking lot of Wells Fargo.  Source: Frederick Morton,”The Story of Winchester in Virginia, The Oldest Town in the Shenandoah Valley”, first published 1925, reprinted by Heritage Books 2007, PAGE 82.

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Of this prison, GW writes Lt Gov Dinwiddie, “As your Honor was pleased to leave to my discretion, to punish or pardon the criminals, I have resolved on the latter; since I find example of so little weight, and since those poor unhappy criminals have undergone no small pain of body and mind, in a dark prison, closely ironed!3

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Lot 45 is our Captain George Mercer’s lot. He was GW’s aid de camp too.  p.44.

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Calendar Change

1752 lost 11 days in September

the year Winchester VA was established


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1751 was the last year when the first day of the new year was regarded as March 25.

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CALENDAR CHANGE: JULIAN TO GREGORIAN

1752  was the first year the English empire officially used January 1 as the first of the new year instead of March 25th.  

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England finally passed a law to catch up with a calendar change first introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, which was already out of wack with seasonal holidays back then.

In September of this year 1752, eleven days were lost.

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FAIRS ?


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DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) float passing in front of Kurtz building during 1925 Apple Blossom Festival parade. photograph contributed by Frances Unger. Published in More Images, p. 47b. CAPTION AND PHOTO FROM HANDLEY LIBRARY ARCHIVES. Click on photo to enlarge.

Ever since Saturday, May 3, 1924,  this town shuts down on the first Saturday of May and calls it Apple Blossom.

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Click on Source of Apple Blossom parade photo .

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But this town wasn’t established in 1752 without a little help.

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In the same law establishing this town, an economic boost with a fair, was decreed twice a year.

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From Hening’s Statutes Volume 6, CHAP. XXVI page 269

http://vagenweb.org/hening/vol06-13.htm#top

 

III. And whereas allowing fairs to be kept, in the said town of Winchester, will be of great benefit to the inhabitants of the said parts, and greatly increase the trade of that town, Be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That for the future, two fairs shall and may be annually kept, and held, in the said town of Winchester, on the third Wednesday in June, and the third Wednesday in October, in every year, and to continue for the space of two days, for the sale and vending all manner of cattle, victuals, provisions, goods, wares, and merchandizes, whatsoever; on which fair days, and two days next before, and two days next after, the said fairs, all persons coming to, being at, or going from the same, together with their cattle, goods, wares, and merchandizes, shall be exempted, and privileged, from all arrests, attachments, and executions, whatsoever, except for capital offences, breaches of the peace, or for any controversies, suits, or quarrels, that may arise and happen during the said time, in which case process may be immediately issued, and proceedings thereupon had, in the same
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Page 270
manner as if this act had never been made, any thing herein before contained, or any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary thereof, in any wise, notwithstanding.

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Did you catch the “exempt from arrests” line?

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From Hening’s Statutes Volume 6, CHAP. XXVI page 269

http://vagenweb.org/hening/vol06-13.htm#top

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James Wood did the homework


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And the law gave him credit for it.

WHEREAS it hath been represented to this General Assembly, that James Wood, gentleman, did survey and lay out a parcel of land, at the court house in Frederick county, in twenty six lots of half an acre each, with streets for a town, by the name of Winchester, and made sale of the said lots to divers persons, who have since settled and built, and continue building and settling thereon

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Source:

From Hening’s Statutes Volume 6, CHAP. XXVI bottom of page 268

http://vagenweb.org/hening/vol06-13.htm#top

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Our Guys in the House of Burgesses


 

1752-1755

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CLICK ON PHOTO TO ENLARGE

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George William Fairfax

He is named as introducing the bill for establishing Winchester as a town with its fairs therein to be read at the House of Burgesses.

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He married “Sally” Sarah Carey, the one George Washington adored. See his letters to her.

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Source of Photo –

https://www.geni.com/people/George-Fairfax/6000000004047263119

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Gabriel Jones

is the other Frederick County representative at the time of introducing the bill establishing the town of Winchester and its fairs therein.

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Every lawyer in the area knows this guy.  And you can see his picture in the Winchester Frederick County Court House on top left towards ceiling of first floor.

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Source stating the two representing Frederick Co VA:
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603340;view=1up;seq=13

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Chronology

of Passing the bill that established the Town of Winchester and its Fairs therein.


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Saturday March 14, 1752

Bill read for first time
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Mr Fairfax reported, That the Persons appointed, had, according to Order, prepared a Bill, For For establishing the Town of Winchester, and appointing Fairs therein, and delivered the ame in at the Table, where it was received, and read the first Time, and ordered to be read a second Time.

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Source:

Bottom of Page 34 (70 in internet link)
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603340;view=1up;seq=70

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Monday March 16th, 1752

Bill read a 2nd time.

A Bill For establishing the Town of Winchester, and appointing Fairs therein, was read a second Time. Resolved that the Bill be engrossed

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Source:

Top middle of p 38 (74 in internet link)

https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603340;view=1up;seq=74

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Thursday March 19, 1752

Bill read 3rd time.
An engrossed Bill, intituled, An Act for the establishing the Town of Winchester, and appointing Fairs therein, was read a third Time. Resolved that the Bill do pass. Ordered that Mr Fairfax do carry it to the Council for their Concurrence.

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Source:

Page 44 (80 in internet link)
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603340;view=1up;seq=80

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Friday March 20, 1752

Final presentation.
And also to to the Bill, intituled, An Act for the establishing the Town of Winchester, and appointing Fairs therein, without any Amendment.

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Source:

Page 46 (82 in internet link)
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603340;view=1up;seq=81

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Monday April 20, 1752

Presented to Council and Governor.
The Governor commands the immediate Attendance of this House in the Council-Chambers command that you bring with you such Bills as are ready for his Assent.
Mr Speaker, with the House, went up accordingly, and the Governor was pleased to give his Assent to the following Public and Private Bills.

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Scan down page for the 20th in the list.
20. For establishing the Town of Winchester, and appointing Fairs therein.

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Source:

Page 97 (133 in internet link)
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603340;view=1up;seq=134

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And thus the Assembly was porogued to the last Thursday of October next.

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Source:
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603340;view=1up;seq=136
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THE COMPLETE LAW

ESTABLISHING
THE TOWN OF WINCHESTER

AND ITS FAIRS THEREIN


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From Hening’s Statutes Volume 6, CHAP. XXVI III page 268
FEBRUARY 1752

25th year of KingGeorge II.
Source: http://vagenweb.org/hening/vol06-13.htm
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Although Henings Statutes shows this date at top of each page, it is just that the session began that month:
LAWS OF VIRGINIA, FEBRUARY 1752−

25th (year of King) GEORGE II

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But the law establishing Winchester

was not passed until April 20, 1752.

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Source:

See the line on 20, then scroll upwards to see the date this bill from the House of Burgesses received approval from the upper council and  Lt Gov Robert Dinwiddie., who was acting Governor from November 21, 1751–January 1758.

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See link: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603340;view=1up;seq=134

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Here is the complete passage of  law

ESTABLISHING

WINCHESTER VA

AND ITS FAIRS


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Scroll from Page 261 until you see bottom of Page 268  CHAPTER XXVI.

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CHAP. XXVI.

An Act for establishing the town of Winchester, and appointing Fairs therein.

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I.

WHEREAS it hath been represented to this General Assembly, that James Wood, gentleman, did survey and lay out a parcel of land, at the court house in Frederick county, in twenty six lots of half an acre each, with streets for a town, by the name of Winchester, and made sale of the said lots to divers persons, who have since settled and built, and continue building and settling thereon; but because the same was not laid off, and erected into a town, by act of
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Page 269
Assembly, the freeholders and inhabitants thereof will not be entitled to the like privileges, enjoyed by the freeholders and inhabitants of other towns in this colony;

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II.

BE it enacted by the Lieutenant Governor, Council, and Burgesses, of this present General Assembly, and it is hereby enacted, by the authority of the same, That the said parcel of land, lately claimed by the said James Wood, lying and being in the county of Frederick aforesaid, together with fifty four other lots of half an acre each, twenty four thereof to be laid off in one or two streets, on the east side of the former lots, the street or streets to run parallel with the street already laid off, and the remaining thirty lots, to be laid off at the north end of the aforesaid twenty six, with a commodious street or streets, in such manner as the proprietor thereof,

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Lord Fairfax. Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron (October 22, 1693 – December 9, 1781) was a Scottish peer. He was the son of Thomas Fairfax, 5th Lord Fairfax of Cameron and of Catherine, daughter of Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper. The only resident peer in late colonial America, Fairfax administered his vast Northern Neck Proprietary — a Virginia land grant dating back to 1649 — from his wilderness estate at Greenway Court, Virginia. CLICK ON PHOTO TO ENLARGE. Source of photo and caption is from wikipedia,

the right honourable Thomas Lord Fairfax, shall think fit, be, and is hereby constituted, appointed, erected, and established, a town, in the manner already laid out, and described to be laid out, to be called by and retain the name of Winchester, and that the freeholders of the said town, shall, for ever hereafter, enjoy the same privileges, which the freeholders of other towns, erected by act of Assembly, enjoy. .

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III.

And whereas allowing fairs to be kept, in the said town of Winchester, will be of great benefit to the inhabitants of the said parts, and greatly increase the trade of that town, Be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That for the future, two fairs shall and may be annually kept, and held, in the said town of Winchester, on the third Wednesday in June, and the third Wednesday in October, in every year, and to continue for the space of two days, for the sale and vending all manner of cattle, victuals, provisions, goods, wares, and merchandizes, whatsoever; on which fair days, and two days next before, and two days next after, the said fairs, all persons coming to, being at, or going from the same, together with their cattle, goods, wares, and merchandizes, shall be exempted, and privileged, from all arrests, attachments, and executions, whatsoever, except for capital offences, breaches of the peace, or for any controversies, suits, or quarrels, that may arise and happen during the said time, in which case process may be immediately issued, and proceedings thereupon had, in the same
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Page 270
manner as if this act had never been made, any thing herein before contained, or any law, custom, or usage, to the contrary thereof, in any wise, notwithstanding.

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IV.

Provided always, That nothing herein contained, shall be construed, deemed, or taken, to derogate from, alter, or infringe, the royal power and prerogative of his majesty, his heirs and successors, of granting to any person or persons, body politic and corporate, the privileges of holding fairs, or markets, in any such manner as he or they, by his or their royal letters patent, or by his or their instructions, to the governor, or commander in chief of this dominion, for the time being, shall think fit.

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From Hening’s Statutes Volume 6, CHAP. XXVI III page 268
FEBRUARY 1752

25th year of KingGeorge II.
Source: http://vagenweb.org/hening/vol06-13.htm

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About the 1758 Addition


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The Street Name Origins:

8 June–26 July 1758

 Seige of Louisbourg is related to 4 Streets of Winchester VA : Amherst, BoscawenWolfe, and also Loudoun.

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The first 3 had conquered Fortress Louisbourg in 1758.

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The last named street was of Lord Loudoun who attempted in 1757 to attack Fortress Louisbourg.

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These names will look familiar to a Winchester VA resident:

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Source: Pages 43. Garland R. Quarles author. “Winchester, Virginia Streets, Churches, Schools” published by Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society, compiled in 1996 of Streets 1958, Churches 1960, and Schools 1964. Click on image to enlarge.

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On 23 January 1758James Wolfe  <—

was appointed  Brigadier General,

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and sent with Major General Jeffrey Amherst   <—

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in the fleet of Admiral Boscawen  <—

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to lay siege to Fortress of Louisbourg

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the mouth of the St Lawrence River

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Bill to submitted to House

September 21, 1758

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Addition to Winchester, submitted

A Petition of James Wood praying, That an Act may pass for enlarging the Town of
Winchester by adding 156 Lots already laid off adjoining thereto, was presented to the
House and read.

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Creating Stephens City (formerly Newtown)
Ordered, That it be an Instruction to the Committee to whom it is referred, to bring
21 in a Bill, For establishing a Town on the Land of Lewis Stephens, that they receive a
Clause or Clauses pursuant to the Prayer of the said Petition.

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Source:

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See page 17 of JOURNALS of the House of Burgesses of Virginia 1758 – 1761

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For Page 17 itself, see:

https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x001603341;view=1up;seq=45

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Bill passes House:

October 5, 1758

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An ingrossed Bill, intituled, An Ad for ereding a Town on the land of Lewis Stephens,
in the County of Frederick, for enlarging the Town of Winchester, and for ereding a Town
on the Lands of Nicholas Minor, in the County of Loudoun, was read a third Time, and
the Blanks therein filled up.

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Resolved, That the Bill do pass.

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Ordered, That Mr Thompson Mason do carry up the said Bill to the Council for their
Concurrence.

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Source Page 38 of  JOURNALS of the House of Burgesses of Virginia 1758 – 1761

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Bill submitted to Privy Council

October 12, 1758

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MR William Digges reported, that the Committee appointed had, according to
Order, examined the enrolled Bills, and rectified such Mistakes as were
found therein, and that they were truly enrolled.

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Ordered, That Mr Digges do carry up the enrolled Bills to the Council
for their inspection.

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For erecting a Town on the Land of Lewis Stephens, in the County of Frederick, for
enlarging the Town of Winchester, and for erecting a Town on the Lands of Nicholas Minor,
in the County of Loudoun.

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The Lt Gov Dinwiddie then gave assent to this bill as well as the others listed on Pages 44-46.

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Source: Pages 44-45-46 of  JOURNALS of the House of Burgesses of Virginia 1758 – 1761

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When were those 3 streets built?

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But those 3 street, Boscawen, Amherst, Wolfe, though submitted in 1758 did not get built until at least after 1777, as this map below shows no streets yet:

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Click on image to enlarge.

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Wilbur S Johnston overlaid the modern streets on to the 1777 map by a Hessian Prisoner.

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The Winchester Book Gallery on the corner of Loudoun and Piccadilly Streets on the north end of the walking mall.

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1759 Lord Fairfax Addition

to Winchester VA


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This session of the House of Burgesses opened February 22, 1759.

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Bill to expand submitted to House

February 28, 1759

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A Petition of the Right Honorable Thomas, Lord Fairfax, setting forth, That he has
lately laid off 173 Lots, adjoining the Town of Winchester; in the County of Frederick,
most of which are already disposed of, and built upon, and praying that an Act: may pass
for adding them to the said Town, was presented to the House and read.  

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Source:

Page 71 of  JOURNALS of the House of Burgesses of Virginia 1758 – 1761

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LINKS

followup for later research

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Biography

https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Calmes-82

The son of Marquis De Calmes and Isabella Elliche. Marquis De Calmes and his wife Isabella arrived in Virginia between 1696 and 1700. Son, Marquis Calmes II, was born in Stafford County, Virginia in 1705. He was educated in France, returned to Virginia about 1723, and lived for a while in Williamsburg. He married Winnifred Waller in 1725 and in 1734 they left Stafford County for land west of the Blue Ridge.

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They eventually settled in the Shenandoah Valley, in the part of Frederick County that eventually became Clarke County. In 1747, Marquis Calmes secured one of the Minor Grants for Land West of the Great Mountains, which Lord Fairfax confirmed by a deed when he took up his abode at Greenway Court.

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That tract was Calmes Neck. Marquis II was a leading citizen, holding office in the county government as well as in his parish.

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When Frederick County was organized in 1743, Marquis II was appointed one of the original twelve justices, and served until 1753.

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He was a church warden of Frederick Parish in 1746 and several succeeding years. He was commissioned a Captain in the militia against the Indians and attained the rank of Major in the Virginia Militia during the French and Indian War.

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Marquis II and Winnifred lived on the Vineyard Plantation (the main house of which is on Route 621, across the river south from the Calmes Neck recreation area, now owned by Charles Burwell). The 1747 deed shows a Calmes house across the river west of Calmes Neck, on land more recently owned by Richard Plater. Plater claimed to have found the foundation of such a building. There is no record of Calmes leasing or owning any part of Vineyard Plantation, which was then owned by Robert Carter. Marquis II is thought to have caused the planting of the vineyard on the Plantation, which was the first vineyard planted west of the Blue Ridge. Marquis II had considerable land holdings in addition to Calmes Neck. In 1741 he purchased 108 acres in Stafford County. He and others were granted 60,000 acres on the Monongahela River in what is now West Virginia.

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In addition, Marquis II owned a lot in Winchester when it was laid out in 1753, as did George Washington. On at least one occasion, Marquis II employed Washington to conduct a survey. Marquis Calmes II, served as a Major in the Virginia Colonial Militia along side a young 21 year old Major George Washington. Major Marquis Calmes died in 1755 as the main French & Indian War of 1755-’63 began and he was buried on the Vineyard Plantation next to his wife.

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A century later, Winnifred’s tombstone was moved to Old Chapel Cemetery, but that of Marquis was beyond repair, not moved, and lost to history. His wife’s marker is the oldest marker at the old stone chapel near Millwood, Virginia. This chapel is marked as the oldest Episcopal Church west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The old chapel is located just down the road from the old Burwell-Morgan Mill that was co-owned and run by Revolutionary War Heroes Colonel Nathaniel Burwell and General Daniel Morgan. If there is a place on this planet that I feel I’m magically drawn to, … like a salmon drawn to it spawning grounds, it is the white-water creek known as “Spot Run” that runs off from the sluice of this mill, and the old farm homes that surround it. Marquis and Winifred Calmes had several children. My lineal ancestor was William Calmes who served as a Lieutenant in the Virginia Continental Line under General Washington, (William’s brother Marquis also served in the Revolution and was a Major in the Virginia Continental Line under General Washington, and later a General during the War of 1812 before settling in Kentucky .)

From ‘I Am French (huguenot)’ As reported by: abncavscout on 10 July 2008

Sources

See Also:

https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Calmes-82

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James Wood’s Survey Book, Orange County Survey Book, 1735-1740,

Surveys, 1735 – ca. 1750—James Wood, Sr.

This small collection of miscellaneous surveys includes an index to the survey book of James Wood, Sr. The Clerk of the County Court in Winchester maintained the original survey book.  It has been called various titles, including James Wood’s Survey Book, Orange County Survey Book, 1735-1740, or just the plain title Survey Book. Occasionally the book is called the Bayliss Survey Book, because two surveys of the town of Winchester by John Bayliss are appended to Wood’s surveys.

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SOURCE:

http://www2.youseemore.com/handley/contentpages.asp?loc=723

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ORANGE COUNTY VA

https://archive.org/details/historyoforangec00scot

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Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and Their Descendants

A History of Frederick County, Virginia

(ILLUSTRATED)

From its Formation in 1738 to 1908

Compiled Mainly from Original Records of Old

Frederick County, now Hampshire, Berkeley,

Shenandoah, Jefferson, Hardy, Clarke,

Warren, Morgan and Frederick

T. K. Cartmell Clerk of the Old County Court

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http://files.usgwarchives.net/va/frederick/history/homesteads02.txt

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http://www.genealogical.com/newsletters/genealogy_pointers_11-2-10.pdf

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The February date on the law was explained up above.

The  March, 1743 date is probably March 1744 under the New Style calendar, also explained above.

“The original plat of the Town of Winchester and of the Commons, surveyed by  John Baylis December 10, 1752,” is of record in the Clerk’s office of the County Court of Frederick in Deed Book No. (2) 24, page 91.  … but that date of Dec 10, 1752 follows after the April 20, 1752 date of establish Winchester as a town.

https://www.winchesterva.gov/sites/default/files/documents/government/city_code/HISTORST.pdf

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Robert and William Walker and the “Ne Plus Ultra”: Scottish Design and Colonial Virginia Furniture, 1730–1775

http://www.chipstone.org/article.php/559/American-Furniture-2006/Robert-and-William-Walker-and-the-%E2%80%9CNe-Plus-Ultra%E2%80%9D:-Scottish-Design-and-Colonial-Virginia-Furniture,-1730%E2%80%931775

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Good list of resources on early Virginia

Adventurers of Purse and Person, Virginia, 1607-1624/25, Fourth Edition. In Three Volumes, by John Frederick Dorman Volume One, Families A-F

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