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Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales and Frederick Co VA

Compiled by Jim Moyer  July 2015, revised 9/26/15, 10/23/16, 5/3/2017, 5/25/2017

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A little more on WHY?  WHY FRED?

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Here lies poor Fred

who was alive and is dead,

Had it been his father I had much rather,

Had it been his sister nobody would have missed her,

Had it been his brother, still better than another,

Had it been the whole generation, so much better for the nation,

But since it is Fred who was alive and is dead,

There is no more to be said!

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Frederick County Virginia is named after this FRED.

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So was Fredericksburg VA.

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Winchester VA was named Frederick Town . . . shortly after being called “Opekon” on the maps.

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And this FRED was related to –

Frederick II (Frederick the Great, King of Prussia).

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The Ditty above

The above ditty at the time of his death was quoted years later by William Makepeace Thackeray in his look at the Hanover family, “The Four Georges”:

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See this link: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29363/29363-h/29363-h.html.

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Or this page turner link http://www.bartleby.com/297/175.html

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Hated by his own Father, King George II

Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales,  was hated by his own father, King George II.

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frederick_prince_of_wales_1754_by_liotard

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This hate was exacerbated by Frederick going to Parliament to ask for a larger allowance when his father King George II would not agree.  Frederick regarded his £50,000 a year (at least £3 million a year in today’s money) as miserably inadequate, especially since Frederick was sponsoring a shadow opposition government, which further cemented his father’s hate.

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Picture from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick,_Prince_of_Wales

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Oh yes, the title Griff?

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That was Frederick, Prince of Wales, nickname.

It was a nick. ..

So when you have a moment —

If you want to know about that nick, read an interesting analysis about the bad blood recorded between Frederick and his mom Caroline and his Dad, King George II:

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http://laurapurcell.com/hanoverian-mothers-3-1-caroline-and-frederick/. .

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So why honor towns and counties after this man?

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What were they thinking?

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Answer?   Was he a version of Camelot?  Young, dynamic, wanting change, aristocratic yet a man of the people?

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From a book, “Britons, Forging the Nation 1707-1837″ by Linda Colley, 1992 Yale University Press, Page 206.

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“…Frederick Lewis [Anglicized] , one of the great might-have-beens of British history. From the 1730s, Frederick — so often dismissed as just another puny princeling — had recognized what was wrong with the Hanoverian Dynasty [King George I, and King George II, his grandfather and father both born in Hanover Germany] practice of monarchy …”

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His gold and graceful state barge, now in the National Maritime Museum at Greenwich, shows how much he wanted to make a visual impact, how much he relished letting the Thames carry him through his capital city in style.”

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“With Frederick, the image of the Hanoverian Dynasty changed, becoming softer and markedly more sympathetic. George I and George II had sought primarily to survive; Frederick, like his successor [his son George III], wanted to appeal and to impress.”

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Ed note: So, . . . Frederick Co VA is named after the Father of the much maligned King George III, the tyrant depicted in the Declaration of the Independence.

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“Frederick had spent money and time associating himself with the making of a patriotic culture, planning the creation of a national academy of art, and commissioning Thomas Arne and James Thomson to write, Rule Britannia.”

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From the Wikipedia link:

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RULE BRITANNIA was first performed at Cliveden, country home of Frederick, Prince of Wales (the eldest son of George II and father of the future George III, as well as the great-grandfather of Queen Victoria), on 1 August 1740

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Frederick arrived in England in 1728 as a grown man, the year after his father had become King George II. … Frederick, himself now Prince of Wales… and Augusta [his wife] appeared in public together, and the couple were popular with the public.

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He also enjoyed sports and was seriously involved in cricket, both as a patron and a player. Frederick looked forward to succeeding to the throne and becoming “a patriot king.”  He delighted in opposing the government and lent his support to the opposition.

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After the Jacobite Rising 1745, culminating in the Battle of Culloden 16 April 1746, Frederick opposed the severe treatment of the Jacobites that his father, King George II, and brother, The Duke of Cumberland [known as the Butcher] supported.

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Frederick doted on his 9 children,  the opposite of his distant father, King George II.   Frederick made news ” helping to put out fires in London.”

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“When he died on 20 March 1750 [old style calendar], cricket suffered a double blow as his death closely followed that of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, the game’s greatest financial patron at the time…”

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Dates of Birth and Death

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Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales was born 1 February 1707

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But you will see different dates for his death.

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Because the calendar changed.

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England, not Scotland (despite having parliaments unified 1707 the year Frederick was born)  in  1750  implemented a two step change in the calendar that took 2 years to complete.

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In England and Wales, 1751 was a short year of 282 days, starting  25 March, ending 31 December.

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Frederick died  on 20 March 1750 old style calendar.

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Wednesday 2 September 1752 was followed by Thursday 14 September 1752, an 11 day change.

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31 March 1751 – new style.

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Source: Calendar (New Style) Act 1750

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FREDERICK COUNTY VA CREATED 1738

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Frederick County  and Augusta County, named for Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, and his Wife, Augusta,  were created from western Orange County by the Virginia House of Burgesses.

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Virginia state history signs all say August 1, 1738

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http://www.markerhistory.com/tag/frederick-county/

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This site states  December 21, 1738 instead.

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http://www.co.frederick.va.us/visit/history-of-frederick-county

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EXACT DATE OF LEGISLATION

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Henings Statutes of Virginia show the House of Burgesses met from August 1, 1738 to November 1, 1738

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For the law creating Frederick and Augusta Counties, see:

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November 1738, Volume V,  Chapter XXI, pages 78-80

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See Link 1

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See Link 2, then CTRL F to find FREDERICK

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Warning on looking for actual dates:

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You will see the heading: LAWS OF VIRGINIA, NOVEMBER 1738−−12th GEORGE II.

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What this means is the 12th year of King George II reign, not November 12 as has been mistakenly inferred.

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FREDERICK COUNTY ESTABLISHED 1743

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Although created in 1738,

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“the said new counties and parishes shall remain part of the county of Orange, and parish of Saint Mark, until it shall be made appear to the governor and council, for the time being, that there is a sufficient number of inhabitants for appointing justices of the peace, and other officers, and erecting courts therein, for the due administration of justice;”

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Source: Page 79 Henings statutes

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And that didn’t happen until 1743 when Frederick County became independent of Orange and established a court with officers.

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The Court for Frederick County VA was held at Orange Court House from 1738 until 1743, when it was transferred to Winchester.

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“Mentioned in the Court Order books as Col. of horse and foot in the Colonial  Line, “and as County Surveyor in 1734;”  special order appears in the minutes  of 1742 in connection with Col. John Lewis, Major Morgan Morgan, Captains  Andrew Campbell, Thos. Rutherford, Lewis Neill, Lt. Jacob Hite, Thos.  Swearingcn, and many others who became prominent in Frederick County when the  first court was organized.”

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See link, then CTRL F to find JAMES WOOD

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Source: Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and Their Descendants, A History of Frederick County, Virginia (ILLUSTRATED)
From its Formation in 1738 to 1908 Compiled Mainly from Original Records of Old Frederick County, now Hampshire, Berkeley, Shenandoah, Jefferson, Hardy, Clarke, Warren, Morgan and Frederick…..by  T. K. Cartmell Clerk of the Old County Court

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Frederick County’s Original Officers of the Court

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On Tuesday, November 14th, 1743, eight persons took the  magistrates’ oath, and composed the court. Morgan Morgan and David Vance administered the oath to Marquis Calmes, Thomas  Rutherford, William M’Mahon, Meredith Helmes, George Hoge  and. John White.

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These, in turn, administered the oath to Morgan  Morgan and David Vance. James Wood was made Clerk of the  County, and Thomas Rutherford, Sheriff. James Porteus, John  Steerman, George Johnston, and John Newport, gentlemen, taking  the oath of attornies, were admitted to the Bar.

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Winchester was  the county seat. At the second meeting of the court, December  9th, 1743, the will of Benjamin Burden, who had been named as  magistrate, was proved.

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Barnet Lindsey received twenty lashes on  his bare back, at the common whipping-post, for stealing’ two pieces  of venison from the milk house of Thomas Hart, adjudged to be  worth two pence: Henry Howard, servant to James M’Crachan,  ‘was adjudged guilty of a misdemeanor, on charge of stealing a mare  from Samuel Glass, and received ten lashes on his bare back,  December 10th.

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In another case of horse stealing — or rather horse  riding — taking a man’s horse without leave, and riding off on a  visit for some days — the defendant had his choice of twenty lashes  or fifteen shillings fine : the same Henry Howard was complained  of by his master, James M’Crachan, that he had been absent eleven  days, and that in finding him and bringing him back, the expenses  had been twenty shillings, and one hundred and fifty pounds of  tobacco ; and the court ordered that he serve six months and four  days for his runaway time and expenses, after the expiration of his  time of servitude according to law, unless he could otherwise satisfy  his master.

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In March, 1744, ordered that James O’Neal keep the  Court House clean, and attend on court days to take care of the  Justices’ horses during a twelvemonth, for which he is to receive  from the county levy £23 15s. current money.

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The above is from:

Sketches of Virginia : historical and biographical  by Foote, William Henry, 1794-1869, Published 1856, pages 17-18

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Appointed Surveyor must live in County

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September 1744, Volume V,  Chapter XXII, page 254-255

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…whereas it hath been found, by experience, that many controversies and disputes have arisen, and daily arise, among people in those counties where any such lands are, about priority of entries, especially where the surveyor of such county doth not actually reside therein, he often times deputing other persons to take entries; and many times it so happens, that entries have been made with such deputy, and with the surveyor himself, for the same land, by different persons: for preventing any such disputes and controversies for the future, and for the greater ease and conveniency of the people, in repairing from time to time, to the respective surveyors of such counties, and for the better ascertaining the right of any such entries

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Quarterly Courts

Courts held once every 3 months

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This was a long running battle between Merchants and Lawyers.  Merchants felt their debts would not be paid in a timely fashion.  Williamsburg Virginia state officials also thought fees and taxes would not be collected either in time. But the lawyers and judges who had to serve these writs and notices and to collect this revenue had a lot of distance to cover. The debtors also lived hundreds of miles away in the wilderness.

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See link:  Quarterly Courts

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Frederick County was one of the courts allowed to meet once every 3 months.

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From the above link: Quarterly courts were allowed from 20 June 1749 until at least 10 June 1751, “and from thence to the end of the next session of Assembly.” Ultimately the next assembly refused to renew it. The quarterly courts act consequently expired when the governor adjourned the Assembly on 20 April 1752.

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On 21 November 1753, the House of Burgesses rejected a petition from Frederick County’s magistrates requesting “that Quarterly Courts may be held in the said County.

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See Map  below of what the counties looked like, copied from link above. Click on map to enlarge detail.

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quarterly courts map

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Bounty for WOLVES in Frederick County

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September 1744, Volume V, Chapter XXIX page 265-266

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…That from and after the first day of November next, a reward of six shillings, for every old Wolf, and two shillings and six pence, for every young Wolf, killed within the county of Frederick, shall be paid, to the party obtaining certificate thereof, under the hand of a justice of peace of the said county

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…the court for the said county of Frederick, shall be held on the first Tuesday

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1632 First wolf bounty law passed by the Virginia Bay Colony

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Bounty for Buffalo

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James Wood (the senior) paid bounty for buffalo.

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Sketches of Virginia : historical and biographical  by Foote, William Henry, 1794-1869, Published 1856

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See Chapter VII, page 91  Benjamin Borden, whose will is proved by James Wood in Winchester VA, allegedly offers a buffalo calf to the Governor.

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See  Chapter XI, Page 150  Buffalo are hunted in Draper’s Meadow, where the famous story of the abuction of Mary Draper Ingles in Southern Virginia occurs.

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What kind of buffalo was it?

See all these discussions:  link1, link2, link3, link4 

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Buffalo Lick Run, Frederick County, Virginia

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BACK TO FREDERICK LOUIS,

IT’S ALL RELATIVE:

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Prince Frederick Louis was born on 1 February 1707 in Hanover, Germany, as Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg, to Prince George, son of George, Elector of Hanover, who was also one of Frederick’s two godfathers. The Elector was the son of Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI and I and first cousin and heiress-presumptive to the English Queen Anne.

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Click on family tree to enlarge.  See King George I and Frederick II (Frederick the Great).

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frederick-the-great-family-tree

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However, Sophia died before Anne at age 83 in June 1714, which elevated the Elector to heir-presumptive; Queen Anne died on August 1 of the same year, and Sophia’s son became King George I. This made Frederick’s father the new Prince of Wales and first-in-line to the British throne and Frederick himself second-in-line. Frederick’s other godfather was his grand-uncle Frederick I, King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia.[1] .

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Click on family tree to enlarge.   See King George I and King George II highlighted.

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georges-hanover-family-tree

King George II begot our FRED, Prince Frederick of Wales who died 1751 and whose son George III became President in 1760 at beginning of the end of the French and Indian War and who became the King that the colonies rebelled against in their Declaration of Independence.

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Frederick was nicknamed “Griff” within the family…Van der Kiste observes that “griff” was a Caribbean term for a half-caste, and that it was applied to Frederick because he was “heavy-nosed, thick-lipped and yellow-skinned.”

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Above from Wikipedia link

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SOURCES on Frederick Louis

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Britons: Forging the Nation 1707–1837, by Linda Colley, 1992, Yale University Press

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Wikipedia Link on Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales

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About the hate  

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More about the hate

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More on Frederick, see reference on helping out with fires

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http://www.unofficialroyalty.com/february-1-1707-birth-of-frederick-prince-of-wales-son-of-king-george-ii-of-great-britain-and-father-of-king-george-iii-of-the-united-kingdom/

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LINKS on Frederick County Virginia

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Frederick County records

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Frederick County creation of roads – VDOT

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Frederick County VA list of sheriffs

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http://www.usgwarchives.net/va/frederick.htm

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Current stats on Frederick County VA

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Benjamin Borden (1675–1743) land speculator

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Fry-Jefferson Map

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LINKS – VIRGINA HOUSE OF BURGESSES

http://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=lva/vi04143.xml

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Henings statues http://vagenweb.org/hening/vol05-05.htm  page 79 creation of Frederick and Augusta Counties out of Orange County in 1738

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Excellent Table of Contents:

1.  “Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1619-1776” 

2.  http://vagenweb.org/hening/

3. The Legal Genealogist VA House of Burgesses

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Quarterly Courts established by House of Burgesses

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Links on Fredericksburg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fredericksburg,_Virginia

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Named for Frederick, Prince of Wales,[14] son of King George II, the colonial town’s streets bore the names of members of the royal family. The county court was moved to Fredericksburg in 1732, and the town served as county seat until 1780, when the courthouse was moved closer to the county center in Spotsylvania County

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TITHABLES. POPULATION STATS

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A List of Tithables Sent the Lords of Trade, February 23rd, 1756. – (Per Capt. Teage.)

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Notice how Frederick County and Augusta County have more taxable people than the older counties?

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Notice the black populations in the older counties, much larger than on the frontier counties?

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http://www.wvculture.org/history/frenchandindian/17560223dinwiddie.html

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LINKS

notes for further research

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Frederick MD and Frederick Co MD

http://hpnbooks.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/HistoricFrederickCounty.pdf

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