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Washington’s 2 Journals 1753-1754

compiled by Jim Moyer, last update 9/30/2015

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Washington’s 2 Journals of 2 expeditions

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The leadup to 1st Journey

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10 June 1752:  Lt Gov Dinwiddie receives request for job by George Washington.

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25 October 1752: GW quits the profession of surveying after the last survey

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13 December 1752:   Lt Gov Dinwiddie and Council create adjutant for the Southern District 

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30 October 1753: Commission from Lt Gov Dinwiddie.  Washington becomes Adjutant for the Southern District and has rank of Major.

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30 October 1753:  Dinwiddie writes instructions to  Washington to go to Logstown  and …

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George Washington, just 21 years old,  wanted and got  the job  from Virginia’s  Lt Gov Dinwiddie  to tell the French to leave the area

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First Journey to “Ohio Country”

31 October 1753 to 16 January 1754

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See link on 1st Journey

See link on 1753 Christmas

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Washington delivers message to French to leave. The story in this excellent link  is printed in London and was printed in Maryland Gazette 21 & 28 March 1754 and the Boston Gazette 16 April–21 May 1754.

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This is a lively story. A wonderful one to dazzle children and adults.

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A video game, Assassin’s Creed popularizes this trip Washington and Gist makes coming back in the icy waters.  Christopher Gist writes of this trip too. His story starts in Will’s Creek (Fort Cumberland) meeting up with Washington and ends back at Wills Creek.

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Different views of Washington’s 1st Journal of the “Ohio country”:

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1. Founders Online, excellent footnotes to this first trip.

2. Archive.org link, literally a page turner  Printed in London.

3. Digital Link file. Ctrl F to find anything to research.

4. Christopher Gist’s journal  14 Nov 1753  to 6 Jan 1754.

5. Life Magazine article on Washington’s journey

6. Emerson’s magazine and Putnam’s monthly. v.5. page 561

7. Emerson’s Magazine and Putnam’s Monthly, 2nd part page 668

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By the way, Christopher Gist  begot Nathaniel Gist who begot Sequoyah, the creator of the Cherokee Alphabet.

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TIMELINE OF 1ST JOURNEY

Going West then North to give a message to the French.

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washington-and-dinwiddie-1753-october-31

30 October 1753: Commission from Lt Gov Dinwiddie.  Washington becomes Adjutant for the Southern District and has rank of Major.

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[Picture from Emerson’s Magazine and Putnam’s Monthly, 1857. vol.5. page 562]

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washington-horseback-oct-31-1753

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October 31, 1753    Washington left Williamsburg, Virginia on , and completed the round trip of more than 1,000 miles by horse, foot, canoe, and raft in about ten weeks.

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[Picture from Emerson’s Magazine and Putnam’s Monthly, 1857. vol.5. page 561]

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November 24 to 30, Washington held council with Tanacharison and Scarouady at Logstown

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washington-at-logstow-with-chief-half-king

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[Picture credit: Emerson Magazine and Putnam Monthly 1857, pages 565]

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Conotocarious – that’s the nickname bestowed on Washington at Logstown at end of November 1753.

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Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1753    ????   Washington’s party spent that night at a Delaware Indian village near the site of today’s Harmony

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washington-with-joncaire

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December 4, 1753  Arrived At Venango. The meeting with Captain Joncaire.

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[Picture credit: Emerson Magazine and Putnam Monthly 1857, vol 5, pages 568]

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About the Joncaire meeting.

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Venango, now Franklin City PA, at the confluence of French Creek and Allegheny River,  was the site of Fraser’s abandoned trading post.

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The French flag was posted there during GW’s visit but by next year the cabin was incorporated into the French building of Fort Machault. Later, Our British Captain Robert Stewart who was Major by 1760 built Fort Venango there.

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The French saw the Ohio River  and Allegheny as one River and called it La Belle Riviere.

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December 7, 1753 at 11am leaving Venango.

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11 December 1753   Washington and Gist arrived at Fort Le Boeuf 

See more on this last leg of the journey going north at Fort Le Boeuf

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TIMELINE GOING HOME

French manipulating Indians to stay and not leave with Washington.

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wt-painting

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27 Dec 1753  an Indian fired a shot at Washington east of today’s Evans City, but missed.

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This place takes notice of that attack by the Indian in Fombell Days.

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Washington falling in an icy river and then staying overnight on an island to wait for ice to freeze to walk to shore. Gist loses some toes to frostbite.

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GuyasutaGuyasuta (c.1725–c.1794) was an important leader of the Seneca was on this trip with Washington.

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This statue was dedicated in 2006 at Emerald View Park (formerly called Grand View Scenic Byway Park) which overlooks the 3 rivers, Ohio, Monongahela, Allegheny. Navigate with mouse or touch screen around this statue.

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INTERIM BETWEEN THE 2 JOURNEYS

17 January 1754 to 30 March 1754

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January 16, 1754.  Washington arrives  in Williamsburg. Lt Gov Dinwiddie immediately asks him to prepare a written report for the House of Burgesses.  Washington reports to Dinwiddie that the French intended to stay.

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Dinwiddie then had this report printed, and it became very popular reading.

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15 Feb. 1754  Washington’s journal was delivered to the House of Burgesses,

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21 Feb 1754 . The burgesses voted the sum of £50 to George Washington.  But  before voting on money for Washington, a knife stabbing needed to be taken care of.  See Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia, 1752-1755, page 182, Thursday 21 February 1754 (babel.hathitrust.org)

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The journal was printed in various colonial newspapers.

21 & 28 Mar. 1754  Maryland. Gazette

16 April–21 May 1754  Boston Gazette

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A British edition was issued in London later that same year, for which Washington sent materials for the preparation of a map.

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June 1754. The first British edition was printed by Thomas Jefferys, an engraver from England’s Board of Trade,  appearing with a map not included in the Williamsburg printing.  See Mount Vernon link for source.

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Founders Online review of interim leading up to this 2nd journey

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February-March 1754 letter from Washington to Corbin, Royal Council member: “…you gave me some room to hope for a commission above that of a Major, and to be ranked among the chief officers of this expedition…”

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20 March 1754  Lieutenant Colonel’s commission from Dinwiddie

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SECOND ADVENTUROUS EXPEDITION

31 March 1754 to 27 June 1754 

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Views of Washington’s journal:

1. Founders Online Washington’s journal  of the 2nd expedition.

2. Library of Congress Washington Diaries link of same.

3. Archive.org page turner of same, published 1893

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We are including letters for this time period for 2 reasons:

1. Adding to what the journal covers

2. Confirming with a 2nd source what the journal covers

3. Confirm or contradict any edits by the French after capturing the journal

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Edward Ward, an Ensign in a militia company under Captain William Trent in the pay of Virginia tells of Captain William Trent’s exploits during Washington’s 2nd expedition

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17 April 1754 Edward Ward surrenders to the French the fort Trent’s forces built at the Ohio forks. See entry of 23 April 1754 War Council at Fort Cumberland at bottom of page on this.

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4 May 1754 Lt Gov Dinwiddie writes to Lt Col Washington to have Capt Trent and Lt Fraser courtmartialed and states this to Col Joshua Fry too.

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20 May 1754 Lt Gov Dinwiddie in Winchester VA awaiting the Twightwees (Miami Indians) , 25 May 1754 letter1 June 1754 letter, same day 2nd letter,  2 June 1754 stating rum is coming jumonville and chief half king 2 watermarkedand a speech for Half King and meeting with prisoner La Force and other prisoners from the Jumonville Incident

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28 May 1754 Killing of Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville

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29 May 1754 Washington describes Jumonville Incident to Col Joshua Fry

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JumonvilleGlenPanorama_5_2_2007

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31 May 1754 Joshua Fry, Commander in Chief, falls off horse, dies

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4 June 1754 Lt Gov Dinwiddie still in Winchester VA, sends Washington his promotion to Commander of the VA Regiment with Innes as overall commander of the united forces from North Carolina, VA, MD.

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3 July 1754 Journal ends before defeat of Washington at Fort Necessity.  See roster of men there.

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12 July 1754 Colonel Innes stating he arrive at Winchester VA  30 June 1754, writes to Gov  of PA, James Hamilton about the defeat and capture of Washington and his men at Fort Necessity, pages 50-52 from the book, MINUTES, PROVINCIAL COUNCIL PENNSYLVANIA, from the organization to the termination  of the proprietary government. published by the state. vol. vi. containing the proceedings of council from. April 2d, 1754, to January 29th, 1756, both days included. Harrisburg:  printed by Theo. Fenn & Co 1851.

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See the word assassin in article 7 of the articles of capitulation written in French?  This is the articles of capitulation Washington signed.  See pages 52-53 of the book MINUTES, PROVINCIAL COUNTRY referenced above. Points in Washington’s defense made by many historians are that the interpretor knew French better than English but was reading a rain soaked illegible note to Washington.  Will get citations for that.

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 surrender fort necessity discussion

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AFTERMATH

October 1754: Washington presents the expense account and resigns.

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What everyone was saying in Williamsburg VA after this.

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LINKS

This is an excellent list of all the HOUSE OF BURGESSES journals by years.

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Contents show Journal, London Map, Frye-Jefferson Map

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Washington’s Trail – http://www.washingtonstrail.org/

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Washington’s Diaries, Journals – excellent list

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Descriptive summaries of Washington’s Diaries

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A yellowed page turner copy of Washington’s first journal 31 October 1753 to 16 January 1754

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Life Magazine issue 20 February 1956  of Washington’s Journey

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George Croghan’s letters and journals 16 November 1750 to November 1765

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Christopher Gist’s Journal  also records this trip, from  Wednesday 14 November 1753  through Sunday 6 January 1754 starting at Will’s Creek and back to Will’s Creek, pages 80-87

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More Links

February 1, 1756 to April 7, 1756 for Washington’s Boston Trip:

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http://founders.archives.gov/?q=Volume%3AWashington-02-02&s=1511211112&r=301

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http://founders.archives.gov/content/volumes

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http://founders.archives.gov/series/Washington/01

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http://founders.archives.gov/volumes/Washington/01-01

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